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Saturation transfer electron paramagnetic resonance and the spin label 2-(3-carboxypropyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-tridecyl-3-oxazolidinyloxyl were used to study erythrocytes from patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy or Becker syndrome and from age-matched normal boys. There were significant differences in the spectral intensities of erythrocytes from Duchenne patients when compared to controls. Spectral intensities increased with time in the former; no such change was observed in the latter. Saturation transfer electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of erythrocytes from patients with Becker syndrome were significantly different from those from Duchenne patients but were not significantly different from normals. These observations suggest the possible usefulness of these techniques in the differential diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Spin label concentration spectral studies suggest that the observed spectral differences between Duchenne patients and controls were due to differential spin exchange phenomena.