Other search tools

About this data

The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.

If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.

Results: 61 to 66 of 66

Publication Record

Connections

Virologic and immunologic determinants of heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Africa.
Fideli US , Allen SA, Musonda R, Trask S, Hahn BH, Weiss H, Mulenga J, Kasolo F, Vermund SH, Aldrovandi GM
(2001) AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 17: 901-10
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Africa, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, Case-Control Studies, Cohort Studies, Female, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Heterosexuality, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Phylogeny, Prospective Studies, RNA, Viral, Regression Analysis, Risk Factors, Sequence Analysis, RNA, Viral Load
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2014
More than 80% of the world's HIV-infected adults live in sub-Saharan Africa, where heterosexual transmission is the predominant mode of spread. The virologic and immunologic correlates of female-to-male (FTM) and male-to-female (MTF) transmission are not well understood. A total of 1022 heterosexual couples with discordant HIV-1 serology results (one partner HIV infected, the other HIV uninfected) were enrolled in a prospective study in Lusaka, Zambia and monitored at 3-month intervals. A nested case-control design was used to compare 109 transmitters and 208 nontransmitting controls with respect to plasma HIV-1 RNA (viral load, VL), virus isolation, and CD4(+) cell levels. Median plasma VL was significantly higher in transmitters than nontransmitters (123,507 vs. 51,310 copies/ml, p < 0.001). In stratified multivariate Cox regression analyses, the risk ratio (RR) for FTM transmission was 7.6 (95% CI: 2.3, 25.5) for VL > or = 100,000 copies/ml and 4.1 (95% CI: 1.2, 14.1) for VL between 10,000 and 100,000 copies/ml compared with the reference group of <10,000 copies/ml. Corresponding RRs for MTF transmission were 2.1 and 1.2, respectively, with 95% CI both bounding 1. Only 3 of 41 (7%) female transmitters had VL < 10,000 copies/ml compared with 32 of 93 (34%) of female nontransmitters (p < 0.001). The transmission rate within couples was 7.7/100 person-years and did not differ from FTM (61/862 person-years) and MTF (81/978 person-years) transmission. We conclude that the association between increasing plasma viral load was strong for female to male transmission, but was only weakly predictive of male to female transmission in Zambian heterosexual couples. FTM and MTF transmission rates were similar. These data suggest gender-specific differences in the biology of heterosexual transmission.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
20 MeSH Terms
Comparative studies of two-times-daily versus three-times-daily indinavir in combination with zidovudine and lamivudine.
Haas DW, Arathoon E, Thompson MA, de Jesus Pedro R, Gallant JE, Uip DE, Currier J, Noriega LM, Lewi DS, Uribe P, Benetucci L, Cahn P, Paar D, White AC, Collier AC, Ramirez-Ronda CH, Harvey C, Chung MO, Mehrotra D, Chodakewitz J, Nguyen BY, Protocol 054/069 Study Teams
(2000) AIDS 14: 1973-8
MeSH Terms: Adult, Anti-HIV Agents, Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, Drug Administration Schedule, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, Indinavir, Lamivudine, Pilot Projects, RNA, Viral, Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, Treatment Outcome, Viral Load, Zidovudine
Show Abstract · Added March 13, 2015
OBJECTIVES - To compare the efficacy and safety of two-times-daily versus three-times-daily indinavir in combination with zidovudine and lamivudine.
DESIGN - Two multicenter, open-label, randomized 24-week studies.
METHODS - Adults HIV-1 infection, HIV-1 RNA greater than 10000 copies/ml, and no prior lamivudine or protease inhibitor therapy were eligible. In a pilot study (Study A), patients received indinavir at 800 mg every 8 h, 1000 mg every 12 h, or 1200 mg every 12 h. In a subsequent study (Study B), patients received indinavir at 800 mg every 8 h or 1200 mg every 12 h. All subjects received zidovudine (300 mg) and lamivudine (150 mg) every 12 h. An intent-to-treat analysis was used.
RESULTS - In Study A, which enrolled 88 patients, neither HIV-1 RNA nor CD4 cell responses differed significantly between treatment groups at 24 weeks when corrected for multiple comparisons. Study B enrolled 433 patients, but was prematurely discontinued when interim analysis suggested greater efficacy of three-times-daily indinavir. Of the first 87 patients reaching week 24, HIV-1 RNA was less than 400 copies/ml in 91% receiving three-times-daily versus 64% receiving two-times-daily indinavir (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION - Three-times-daily indinavir appears more efficacious than two-times-daily dosing when administered with zidovudine and lamivudine. Two-times-daily indinavir dosing should only be considered in situations characterized by favorable pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
16 MeSH Terms
Serum retinol and HIV-1 RNA viral load in rapid and slow progressors.
Camp WL, Allen S, Alvarez JO, Jolly PE, Weiss HL, Phillips JF, Karita E, Serufilira A, Vermund SH
(1998) J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 18: 401-6
MeSH Terms: Adult, Disease Progression, Female, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, RNA, Viral, Rwanda, Survival Analysis, Time Factors, Viral Load, Vitamin A, Vitamin A Deficiency
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2014
Few studies have addressed the relation between serum vitamin A levels and HIV disease progression. Thirty HIV-infected women in Rwanda were studied over a time span of 26 to 99 months. Fourteen subjects seroconverted and died of HIV-related disease at a mean of 44 months (range, 26-69 months) after their first HIV-positive test and were termed "rapid progressors," (RPs). A comparison group of 16 "slow progressors" (SPs) were HIV-positive at the time of their first HIV serology and had asymptomatic HIV infections at a mean of 96 months (range, 93-99 months) after their first HIV serology. Baseline mean serum retinol values were the same in RPs and SPs: 0.65 + 0.08 micromol/L versus 0.67 + 0.09 micromol/L (p = .7). Lower serum retinol levels were observed in RPs compared with SPs for the second and third measurements, obtained at a median of 12 and 24 months past baseline: 0.51 + 0.07 micromol/L versus 0.76 + 0.14 micromol/L (p = .3) and 0.44 + 0.09 micromol/L versus 0.64 + 0.08 micromol/L (p = .08), respectively. Median retinol levels for the third sample measurement were similar in RPs with lower viral load (LVL) and SPs (0.49 micromol/L and 0.52 micromol/L, respectively) compared with only 0.19 micromol/L in RPs with higher viral load (HVL; p = .02). A trend toward decreasing serum retinol levels and increasing HIV-1 RNA viral load was observed at the third sample measurement (p = .04). Subjects with LVL, higher serum retinol levels (> or =0.70 micromol/L), or both had more favorable rates of survival than subjects with HVL, low serum retinol levels (<0.70 micromol/L), or both. Although sample size does not permit definitive conclusions, this study demonstrates an association of high HIV load, rapid progression, and low serum retinol late but not early in disease progression.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
13 MeSH Terms
Serum retinol and HIV-1 RNA viral load in rapid and slow progressors.
Camp WL, Allen S, Alvarez JO, Jolly PE, Weiss HL, Phillips JF, Karita E, Serufilira A, Vermund SH
(1998) J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 18: 21-6
MeSH Terms: Adult, Disease Progression, Female, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, RNA, Viral, Rwanda, Survival Analysis, Time Factors, Viral Load, Vitamin A, Vitamin A Deficiency
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2014
Few studies have addressed the relation between serum vitamin A level and HIV disease progression. Thirty HIV-infected women in Rwanda were studied over a time span of 26 to 99 months. Fourteen subjects seroconverted and died of HIV-related disease at a mean of 44 months (range, 26-69 months) after their first HIV-positive test and were termed "rapid progressors," (RPs). A comparison group of 16 "slow progressors" (SPs) were HIV-positive at the time of their first HIV serology and had asymptomatic HIV infections at a mean of 96 months (range, 93-99 months) after their first HIV serology. Baseline mean serum retinol values were the same in RPs and SPs: 0.65 + 0.08 mmol/L versus 0.67 + 0.09 micromol/L (p = .7). Lower serum retinol levels were observed in RPs compared with SPs for the second and third measurements, obtained at a median of 12 and 24 months past baseline: 0.51 + 0.07 mmol/L versus 0.76 + 0.14 mmol/L (p = .3) and 0.44 + 0.09 mmol/L versus 0.64 + 0.08 mmol/L (p = .08), respectively. Median retinol levels for the third sample measurement were similar in RPs with lower viral load (LVL) and SPs (0.49 mmol/L and 0.52 mmol/L, respectively) compared with only 0.19 mmol/L in RPs with higher viral load (HVL; p = .02). A trend toward decreasing serum retinol levels and increasing HIV-1 RNA viral load was observed at the third sample measurement (p = .04). Subjects with LVL, higher serum retinol levels (> or =0.70 mmol/L), or both had more favorable rates of survival than subjects with HVL, low serum retinol levels (<0.70 mmol/L), or both. Although sample size does not permit definitive conclusions, this study demonstrates an association of high HIV load, rapid progression, and low serum retinol late but not early in disease progression.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
13 MeSH Terms
Analysis of intercurrent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infections in phase I and II trials of candidate AIDS vaccines. AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group, and the Correlates of HIV Immune Protection Group.
Graham BS, McElrath MJ, Connor RI, Schwartz DH, Gorse GJ, Keefer MC, Mulligan MJ, Matthews TJ, Wolinsky SM, Montefiori DC, Vermund SH, Lambert JS, Corey L, Belshe RB, Dolin R, Wright PF, Korber BT, Wolff MC, Fast PE
(1998) J Infect Dis 177: 310-9
MeSH Terms: AIDS Vaccines, Adult, Amino Acid Sequence, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, Female, HIV Antibodies, HIV Envelope Protein gp120, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, Immunity, Active, Incidence, Male, Middle Aged, Molecular Sequence Data, Neutralization Tests, Peptide Fragments, Risk-Taking, Sequence Analysis, Substance Abuse, Intravenous, Viral Load
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2014
Among 2099 uninfected subjects in phase I and II trials of candidate AIDS vaccines, 23 were diagnosed with intercurrent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. High-risk sexual exposures accounted for 17 infections, and intravenous drug use accounted for 6. Four subjects received placebo, 13 received a complete immunization schedule (> or = 3 injections), and 6 were partially immunized (< or = 2 injections). There was no significant difference between vaccine recipients and control groups in incidence of HIV-1 infection, virus load, CD4 lymphocyte count, or V3 loop amino acid sequence. In summary, 19 vaccinated subjects acquired HIV-1 infection during phase I and II trials, indicating that immunization with the products described is < 100% effective in preventing or rapidly clearing infection. Laboratory analysis suggested that vaccine-induced immune responses did not significantly affect the genotypic or phenotypic characteristics of transmitted virus or the early clinical course of HIV-1 infection.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
21 MeSH Terms
Increased viral load and suicidal ideation in an HIV-infected patient.
Haas DW, Morgan ME, Harris VL
(1997) Ann Intern Med 126: 86-7
MeSH Terms: Adult, HIV Seropositivity, Humans, Male, Suicide, Viral Load
Added March 13, 2015
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
6 MeSH Terms