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Two human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines (PANC 1 and MIA PACA 2) were examined for expression of growth factors that could potentially play a role either in growth regulation of the tumor cells, or in cells that comprise the stromal elements of tumors. Both cell lines expressed transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), c-sis (PDGF B chain), TGF beta 1, and TGF beta 3 mRNA by Northern blot analysis. Only the PANC 1 cells, however, expressed the TGF beta 2 transcript. TGF beta-like competing activity was found in medium conditioned by either cell line, but TGF alpha-like [epidermal growth factor (EGF)-competing] activity was not detected in the medium from either cell line by radioreceptor assay. TGF alpha and EGF caused concentration-dependent stimulation of soft agar colony growth of the MIA PACA 2 cells, while only TGF alpha caused a significant but less dramatic stimulation of soft agar growth of the PANC 1 cells. Insulin stimulated the anchorage-independent growth of MIA PACA 2 but not PANC 1 cells. Likewise, bFGF also caused a concentration-dependent stimulation of MIA PACA 2 but not PANC 1 growth in soft agar, and PDGF had no effect on the growth of either cell line. TGF beta had no inhibitory or stimulatory effect on soft agar colony growth of either the PANC 1 or the MIA PACA 2 cells, although both cell lines exhibited high affinity, saturable TGF beta binding sites, and TGF beta 1 was capable of autoinduction of TGF beta 1 mRNA expression in PANC 1 cells. The ability to continue to respond to positive growth regulatory factors coupled with the loss of responsiveness to negative growth factors may be important in the pathogenicity of these aggressive tumors.
Application of TGF beta 1 (10-100 ng) to the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) for 72 h resulted in a dose-dependent, gross angiogenic response. The vascular effects induced by TGF beta 1 were qualitatively different than those induced by maximal doses of basic FGF (bFGF) (500 ng). While TGF beta 1 induced the formation of large blood vessels by 72 h, bFGF induced primarily small blood vessels. Histologic analysis revealed that TGF beta 1 stimulated pleiotropic cellular responses in the CAM. Increases in fibroblast and epithelial cell density in the area of TGF beta 1 delivery were observed as early as 4 h after TGF beta 1 treatment. By 8 h, these cell types also demonstrated altered morphology and marked inhibition of proliferation as evidenced by 3H-thymidine labeling. Thus, the TGF beta 1-stimulated accumulation of these cell types was the result of cellular chemotaxis from peripheral areas into the area of TGF beta 1 delivery. Microscopic angiogenesis in the form of capillary sprouts and increased endothelial cell density first became evident at 16 h. By 24 h, capillary cords appeared within the mesenchyme of the CAM, extending towards the point of TGF beta 1 delivery. 3H-thymidine labeling revealed that the growth of these capillary cords was due to endothelial cell proliferation. Finally, perivascular mononuclear inflammation did not become evident until 48 h of treatment, and its presence correlated spatially and temporally with the gross and histological remodelling of newly formed capillary cords into larger blood vessels. In summary, these data suggest that, in the chicken CAM, TGF beta 1 initiates a sequence of cellular responses that results in growth inhibition, cellular accumulation through migration, and microvascular angiogenesis.