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The binding of a 13C-labeled cyclosporin A (CsA) analog to cyclophilin (peptidyl prolyl isomerase) was examined by means of isotope-edited nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. A trans 9,10 peptide bond was adopted when CsA was bound to cyclophilin, in contrast to the cis 9,10 peptide bond found in the crystalline and solution conformations of CsA. Furthermore, nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) were observed between the zeta 3 and epsilon 3 protons of the methylleucine (MeLeu) residue at position 9 of CsA and tryptophan121 (Trp121) and phenylalanine (Phe) protons of cyclophilin, suggesting that the MeLeu9 residue of CsA interacts with cyclophilin. These results illustrate the power of isotope-edited NMR techniques for rapidly providing useful information about the conformations and active site environment of inhibitors bound to their target enzymes.
Therapeutic doses of glucocorticoids are thought to inhibit prostaglandin and leukotriene formation in humans. Several studies in animals, however, have failed to demonstrate modulation of eicosanoid biosynthesis by steroids in vivo. We administered prednisone (60 mg/day) to eight healthy volunteers and measured eicosanoid formation by a variety of cell types in vivo and ex vivo, using sensitive and specific physicochemical assays. We found that the in vivo course of prednisone failed to inhibit the synthesis of thromboxane A2, prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin), prostaglandin E2, and leukotriene E4 in vivo and of leukotriene B4 ex vivo. Biosynthesis of leukotriene B4, thromboxane B2, and prostaglandins F2 and E2 by macrophage-rich bronchoalveolar lavage cells was strongly suppressed. These findings indicate that therapeutic regimens of glucocorticoids suppress eicosanoid biosynthesis in human macrophages but not in a number of other cell types with steroid receptors, the capacity for eicosanoid formation, and lipocortin-like material.
1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to detect directly the signal from the aromatic protons of phenylalanine (phe) in the brains of rabbits made hyperphenylalaninemic by administration of a diet high in phe and containing 0.4% alpha-methylphenylalanine. In addition to those resonances found in the region between 6.5 and 8.5 ppm in the 1H NMR spectra of control rabbits, a resonance centered at 7.37 ppm was observed in the spectra obtained from the brains of hyperphenylalaninemic rabbits in vivo or in situ postmortem. The chemical shift of this additional resonance was that expected for protons of the phenyl ring of phe. Its intensity correlated well with measurements of brain phe levels made on postmortem samples by amino acid analyzer. Both of these measurements correlated poorly with amino acid analyzer measurements of serum phe, especially at high values of the latter. High-resolution 1H NMR spectra of the brain extracts showed that in most animals an unidentified aromatic compound, possibly gamma-glutamyl-phe, was present in addition to phe. This study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring the concentration of brain phenyl and its metabolites noninvasively by 1H NMR. The method can be used for similar measurements in human brain.
A cDNA clone encoding the complete protein sequence of the precursor form of bovine cytochrome P450(11)beta has been constructed using a combined technique of first strand cDNA synthesis by reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction. Upon expression of this cDNA in COS 1 cells the P450(11)beta is found to be proteolytically processed and localized in the mitochondrion. This cDNA encodes the major form of P450(11)beta found in bovine adrenal cortex (designated 11 beta-3; Kirita, S., Morohashi, K., Hashimoto, T., Yoshioka, H., Fujii-Kuriyama, Y., and Omura, T. (1988) J. Biochem. 104, 683-686) and is capable of catalyzing 11 beta-hydroxylation of deoxycorticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and androstenedione in COS 1 cells as well as aldosterone synthesis from deoxycorticosterone. In addition, a second form of P450(11)beta (herein designated 11 beta-4), having no detectable 11 beta-hydroxylase activity or aldosterone synthase activity, was found in the local bovine population by this cloning procedure. These two forms of P450(11)beta (11 beta-3 and 11 beta-4) contain five amino acid differences between them, all located within the amino-terminal half of the molecules. By changing 2 of the amino acids in the inactive form to the corresponding amino acids in the active form (Leu66----Phe and Pro126----Ser) both 11 beta-hydroxylase and aldosterone synthetase activities were completely restored. Neither of these changes alone led to detectable activity. Thus, upon expression in mitochondria of heterologous cells, bovine P450(11)beta catalyzes both 11 beta-hydroxylation and aldosterone synthesis as reported previously for the purified enzyme in an in vitro reconstituted system, and Phe66 and Ser126 seem to be important residues in maintaining both activities.
We have studied the consequences of introducing human recombinant transforming growth factor beta 1 (hrTGF-beta 1) into synovial tissue of the rat, to begin to better understand the significance of the fact that biologically active TGF-beta is found in human arthritic synovial effusions. Within 4-6 h after the intra-articular injection of 1 microgram of hrTGF-beta 1 into rat knee joints, extensive recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was observed. Cytochemistry and high resolution histological techniques were used to quantitate the influx of PMNs, which peaked 6 h post-injection. In a Boyden chamber assay, hrTGF-beta 1 at 1-10 fg/ml elicited a chemotactic response from PMNs greater in magnitude than that evoked by FMLP, establishing that TGF-beta 1 is an effective chemotactic agent for PMNs in vitro as well as in vivo. That PMNs may represent an important source of TGF-beta in inflammatory infiltrates was strongly suggested by a demonstration that stored TGF-beta 1 was secreted during phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated degranulation in vitro. Acid/ethanol extracts of human PMNs assayed by ELISA contained an average of 355 ng of TGF/beta 1 per 10(9) cells potentially available for secretion during degranulation of PMNs. [3H]Thymidine incorporation in vivo and autoradiography of tissue sections revealed that widespread cell proliferation was triggered by TGF-beta 1 injection. Synovial lining cells and cells located deep within the subsynovial connective tissue were identified as sources of at least some of the new cells that contribute to TGF-beta 1-induced hyperplasia. Our results demonstrate that TGF-beta is capable of exerting pathogenic effects on synovial tissue and that PMNs may represent a significant source of the TGF-beta present in synovial effusions.
Intradialytic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) was examined separately in six hemodialysis patients. Samples obtained 15 minutes after initiation of dialysis with new cuprophane membranes demonstrated significantly increased (P less than 0.05) ROS production in both cell populations as measured by the fluorescence of a specific intracellular marker (2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate [DCFH-DA]) assayed by flow cytometry. Granulocytes harvested during dialysis also showed decreased responsiveness to exogenous C5a and F-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP) at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after initiation of dialysis (P less than 0.05). Our data suggest that hemodialysis with cuprophane membrane is associated with monocyte and PMNL activation as shown by production of ROS coincident with peak activation of the complement cascade; these granulocytes become refractory to further stimulation with C5a and FMLP during dialysis.
Neutrophils change shape from round to polar and sequentially polymerize/depolymerize actin following chemotactic peptide activation in suspension. To study the relationship between changes in F-actin content and shape we altered the kinetics/extent of actin polymerization and depolymerization with tBOC peptide, cytochalasin D (CD), and low-dose FMLP, and determined the effect of these alterations on the temporal sequence of changes in neutrophil shape. F-actin was measured by FACS analysis of NBDphallacidin-stained cells and expressed as relative fluorescent intensity (RFI) compared to control (RFI = 1.00). Shape was determined by scanning electron microscopy. FMLP causes serial polymerization/depolymerization of actin (RFI = 1.00 +/- 0.04, 1.60 +/- 0.21, 1.10 +/- 0.18, and 1.05 +/- 0.14) associated with four distinct shapes (round-smooth, round-ruffled, blebbed, and polar) noted at 0, 30, 90, 300 sec respectively. Since blebbed and polar shapes appear concurrent with depolymerization and following polymerization, we determined whether depolymerization is required for polarization of cells. The kinetics of depolymerization were: (1) accelerated by tBOC addition at 45 sec, and (2) slowed by high concentrations of FMLP (greater than 10-7M) (300 sec RFI = 1.46). Neither change altered the time course of shape change. To determine whether duration of actin polymerization defines shape, polymerization was halted by addition of tBOC at 5, 10, 20, 30 sec after FMLP to block actin polymerization and shape was monitored at 300 sec. TBOC added 5-20 sec after FMLP limited neutrophil shape change to the blebbed form, while tBOC addition 30 sec following FMLP resulted in a polar shape at 300 sec. To determine whether the extent of actin polymerization affects the shape change sequence, polymerization was limited by (1) inhibition of polymerization with CD, (2) exposure of cells to low concentrations of FMLP (less than 10-9 M), and (3) interruption of polymerization with tBOC. Actin polymerization to RFI less than 1.35-fold basal results in blebbed shape; polymerization greater than 1.35-fold basal yields polar shape. The data show: (1) the human neutrophil demonstrates intermediate shapes when activated by chemotactic peptide, (2) depolymerization of F-actin does not determine shape, and (3) blebbed shape appears when actin polymerizes for greater than 5 sec; polar shape with polymerization greater than or equal to 30 sec to RFI greater than 1.35-fold basal. The data suggest actin polymerization is required for, and extent of polymerization determines, the shape of human neutrophils.
Four adult men received a 48-h constant intravenous infusion of [2H4]lysine, [2H3]leucine, L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine, and L-[1,2,3,-13C3]alanine. Subjects ingested hourly meals for two 12-h periods, separated to two 12-h fasting periods. The isotopic enrichments of free amino acids in venous plasma and in VLDL apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB)-bound amino acids, plasma alpha-keto isocaproic acid (alpha-KIC) and plasma pyruvic acid (PYR) were measured by negative chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. By 7 h of infusion, all four amino acids achieved an equilibrium isotopic enrichment (EIE) in plasma and in apoB. In the fed state, the EIE of the amino acids in apoB was lower than that in plasma free amino acids. The ratio EIE-apoB:EIE-plasma differed significantly among amino acids in the fed state (alanine 0.30; lysine 0.64; leucine 0.70; phenylalanine 0.81). In the postabsorptive state, the EIE-apoB:EIE-plasma ratio rose significantly compared with the fed state (alanine 0.38; lysine 0.73; leucine 0.94; phenylalanine 1.05). Plasma PYR and apoB-alanine were in isotopic equilibrium irrespective of nutritional state. The EIE-apoB-leucine:EIE-plasma-alpha-KIC ratio rose from 0.75 in the fed state to near 1 in the postabsorptive state. We conclude that the contribution of systemic amino acids to apoB-100 synthesis is sensitive to nutritional state, and that systemic essential amino acids seem to be preferentially incorporated into apoB.