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We tested the hypothesis that adaptation to microgravity, simulated by a 10-day period of head-down tilt (HDT), alters the responses to an intravenous fluid load by causing a larger fraction of the infused volume to be retained and magnifying the acute hemodynamic effects. HDT caused a significant (p less than 0.01) decrease in blood volume (-0.72 liters) and weight (-1.6 kg). Rapid infusion (22 ml/kg over 20 min.) of isotonic saline before, during, and after HDT produced a transient blood volume expansion with 18% of the infusate retained intravascularly after 2 hours. HDT had no effect on this response. Control hemodynamics were significantly different with lower cardiac output and higher total peripheral resistance (TPR) during and after HDT. Saline caused significant increases in cardiac output, heart rate, and stroke volume and a decrease in TPR. The magnitude and time course of these changes were not altered by HDT. The results refute the hypothesis and suggest that during HDT new set points or operating points were established for the control of intravascular volume and hemodynamic state.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) may activate multiple mechanisms that protect against circulatory volume overload. We hypothesized that a temporal relationship exists between increases in cardiac filling pressure and plasma ANP concentration and also between ANP elevation and vasodilation, fluid movement from plasma to interstitium, and increased urine volume (UV). We infused 30 ml/kg isotonic saline at 100 ml/min in seven supine male subjects and monitored responses for 3 h postinfusion. Right atrial pressure (RAP) was measured via a central catheter. ANP (pmol/l) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Transcapillary fluid transport (TFT) equaled infused volume minus UV, insensible fluid loss, and change in plasma volume (PV, measured with Evan's blue). Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) was calculated as (mean arterial pressure-RAP)/cardiac output (determined by acetylene rebreathing). Plasma oncotic pressure (OP) was measured directly. During infusion, mean TFT (+/- SE) increased from net reabsorption during control of 111 +/- 27 ml/h to net filtration of 1,219 +/- 143 ml/h (P < 0.01). At end infusion, mean RAP, heart rate, and PV exhibited peak increases of 146, 23, and 27%, respectively. Concurrently, SVR and OP achieved nadirs 29 and 31% below control, respectively. Mean plasma ANP and UV peaked (45 and 390%, respectively) at 30 min postinfusion. Systemic vasodilation and capillary filtration resulted from and compensated for infusion-induced circulatory pressure increases and hemodilution. By 1 h postinfusion, most cardiovascular variables had returned toward control levels, and net reabsorption of extravascular fluid ensued.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)