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Intraperitoneal injection of tritiated folic acid (PteGlu) into rats has revealed the presence of three separate protein fractions in the cytosol fraction of the liver and one in the mitochondria which bind folate derivatives. The proteins in the cytosol (cytosol I, II and III) have approximate molecular weights of 350,000, 150,000, and 25,000 and the protein in the mitochondria has an approximate molecular weight of 90,000 as estimated by gel filtration. The bound folate derivatives are primarily polyglutamate forms while cytosol II contains primarily bound 5-methyltetrahydrofolate polyglutamate derivatives. Little binding of radioactively labeled folic acid or 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to these fractions was observed when binding was carried out in vitro. Significant binding in vitro was observed, however, when a mixture of biosynthetically labeled natural folate derivatives was used. These proteins have not been purified, but cytosol III partially consists of the enzyme, tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (EC 126.96.36.199). Studies on the time course of folic acid incorporation into the liver showed that soon after injection nonmetabolized folic acid was bound to the plasma membrane fraction of the liver cell. It is suggested that at least one of the binding proteins in the cytosol may be involved in storage of the vitamin while the binding of nonmetabolized folic acid to the plasma membrane may reflect the existence of a carrier for folic acid transport into the cell.
The unexplained occurrence of thrombocytopenia in cases of Gramnegative sepsis in man led us, in the light of animal experiments indicating the blood platelet as the target cell for endotoxin, to examine the effect of Salmonella enteritidis lipopolysaccharide B on human platelets. Human platelets were separated from a coat of plasma proteins by Sepharose 2B filtration or by a combined procedure of albumin gradient and Sepharose 2B filtration. The action of endotoxin on human platelets resulted in membrane changes manifested by dose-dependent release of [3H]serotonin and adenine nucleotides. Cytoplasmic marker, lactic dehydrogenase, and lysosomal marker, beta glucuronidase, were retained indicating that the release reaction was selective. Release of [3H]serotonin was specific for endotoxin since other particulates, zymosan and erythrocyte stroma, were without effect. Endotoxin, added to gel-filtered human platelets, induced a significant evolution of platelet factor 3 procoagulant activity. Preincubation of endotoxin with a membrane-rich homogenate of human platelets inhibited its labilizing effect on human platelets thus suggesting an interaction between endotoxin and the platelet membrane itself. Other plausible factors in this interaction [fibrinogen, adenine nucleotides, thrombin, sialic acid residues, and IgG] were eliminated on the basis of a series of control experiments. From the negligible effect of aspirin and indomethacin, we may infer that the interaction of endotoxin with platelets does not depend on the platelet prostaglandin synthesis pathway. The direct interaction of endotoxin with the human platelet membrane comprises a new mechanism which may help to clarify the pathogenesis of vascular and haemostatic disorders accompanying bloodstream infections due to Gram-negative bacteria.
Insulin, as well as other ligands which increase intracellular guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), augments thymic-derived (T)- lymphocyte effector activity as revealed by alloimmune lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity. The observation that insulin binds only to monocytes among circulating nonimmune human mononuclear cells fosterd reexamination of the mechanism by which insulin augments T-lymphocyte function. This report concerns a test of the hypothesis that the T cell is directly affected by insulin and that an insulin receptor emerges upon T lymphocytes consequent to immune activation. Spleens were removed from rats skin grafted across a major histocompatibility barrier. Lymphocytes were harvested from Ficoll-Hypaque density gradients and subsequently enriched for T cells by passage over one or two nylon wool columns. This population was composed of more than 98% T cells as assessed by surface marker techniques (Ig staining, erythrocyte antibody, and erythrocyte antibody complement rosetting, anti-T staining). There was no loss of augmentation of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity induced by insulin, carbamycholine, and 8-bromo-cGMP in the purified cells when compared to unfractionated cells 7 days after transplantation. 125I-insulin bound saturably to the allostimulated T-enriched lymphocytes with maximum binding at 12.8 +/- 0.2 pg and a dissociation constant at equilibrium of 1.3 nM. In contrast, insulin receptors were not present on nonimmune T-enriched cells or on T cells from animals that received syngeneic grafts. The affinity of the lymphocyte insulin receptor was similar to that of more conventional insulin-sensitive tissues e.g., liver, adipocyte. After 89% of T cells from spleens on day 7 were lysed with anti-thy 1.1 antibody and complement, the ability to measure specific insulin binding was lost. These data confirm a physiologic role for insulin in T-lymphocyte effector function and describe the emergence of insulin receptors concomitant with cell sensitivity to ligand. Such receptors may play a role in hormonal modulation of the immune response.
Membrane glycoproteins have been studied in the normal lactating mammary gland and R3230 AC mammary tumor of the rat. Plasma membrane-enriched fractions were obtained from these tissues by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation of a microsomal preparation from the tissue homogenates. The lightest membrane fractions (F-1 and F-2) have the greatest enrichment of plasma membrane markers, with a 14- to 20-fold purification of 5'-nucleotidase and Na+-K+ -adenosine triphosphatase over the homogenate values in both tumor and normal tissues for F-1. Electron microscopy shows smooth membrane vesicles for these fractions. Polypeptide analysis by acrylamide gel electrophoresis shows essentially the same patterns for F-1 and F-2 and only relatively minor differences between membrane components of tumor and normal tissues. Glycoprotein analysis of the polyacrylamide gels by periodate-Schiff staining indicates more dramatic differences. Membrane Fraction F-1 from normal tissue contains two major glycoproteins, GP-II and GP-III, while Fractions F-2 and F-3 contain an additional glycoprotein, GP-I, with a higher apparent molecular weight. In the tumor, the component corresponding to GP-III is decreased or absent and a new component GP-IV is seen at a lower apparent molecular weight.