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5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a mitogen for fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle cells, renal mesangial cells, and jejunal crypt cells. The human carcinoid cell line (termed BON) that we established in our laboratory from a pancreatic carcinoid tumor produces and secretes 5-HT. In this study, therefore, we examined the effect of 5-HT on growth of BON cells. Furthermore, by use of selective 5-HT receptor antagonists, we examined receptor and post-receptor mechanisms by which 5-HT-induced responses were produced. 5-HT stimulated growth of BON cells. 5-HT stimulated phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis in a dose-dependent fashion and inhibited cyclic AMP production in a dose-dependent fashion. The 5-HT1A/1B receptor antagonist, SDZ 21-009, prevented the reduction of cyclic AMP production evoked by 5-HT and inhibited the mitogenic action of 5-HT. The 5-HT1C/2 receptor antagonist, mesulergine, competitively inhibited PI hydrolysis, but did not affect the mitogenic action of 5-HT. The mitogenic action of 5-HT and the reduction of cyclic AMP production evoked by 5-HT were also inhibited by pertussis toxin. These results suggest that 5-HT is an autocrine growth factor for BON cells and that mitogenic mechanism of 5-HT involves receptor-mediated inhibition of the production of cyclic AMP which may be linked to pertussis toxin-sensitive GTP binding protein. 8-bromo-cyclic AMP inhibited growth of BON cells whereas 8-bromo-cyclic GMP had no effect on cell growth. Involvement of protein kinase A in BON cell growth regulation was confirmed by the observation that a cAMP-dependent protein kinase antagonist (Rp-cAMPS) could stimulate BON cell growth.
Progressive renal fibrosis is considered to be the final common pathway leading to chronic renal insufficiency. In this study, the authors examined some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the renal accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins using rats with puromycin amino-nucleoside (PAN) nephrosis as an acute model system. Puromycin aminonucleoside rats developed reversible nephrotic syndrome accompanied by an interstitial infiltrate of monocytes. The number of interstitial fibroblasts expressing ST4 antigen did not increase. During the first 4 days, steady-state mRNA levels for all genes examined remained at or below control levels. At 1 week, nephrotic syndrome and interstitial inflammation were established, and a period of renal cell proliferation occurred, identified by increased histone mRNA levels and localized by tritiated thymine autoradiography to tubular epithelial cells and occasional interstitial cells. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) steady-state mRNA levels were increased eightfold, but returned to control levels by 3 weeks. At week 1, there was a 10- to 20-fold increase in kidney steady-state mRNA levels for genes encoding interstitial matrix proteins collagen I and fibronectin and basement membrane collagen IV. By in situ hybridization, alpha 1(I) procollagen mRNA was localized to interstitial cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated focal accumulation of ECM proteins in the tubulointerstitial compartment at 2 and 3 weeks, but by 6 weeks, kidney immunohistology was normal again. Steady-state mRNA levels for the matrix degrading metalloproteinase stromelysin remained at control values, whereas the levels for interstitial collagenase were normal at week 1 and increased twofold to threefold at 2 and 3 weeks. Steady-state mRNA levels for the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) increased fivefold at 1 week and returned to baseline values over the next 2 weeks. The results of this study suggest that tubulointerstitial ECM accumulation occurs in rats with acute PAN nephrosis because of the activation of genes encoding several matrix proteins and inhibition of matrix degradation mediated by TIMP. These events are reversed during the phase of recovery from nephrotic syndrome. Increased mRNA levels for TGF-beta, possibly originating from inflammatory interstitial monocytes, are likely to be one of the mediators of the molecular events observed.
The regenerative response of minced cardiac muscle grafts in the adult newt was studied using autoradiography and electron microscopy. One-sixteenth to one-eighth of the newt ventricle was amputated, minced, and returned to the wounded ventricle. At five days after grafting, no reorganization of graft msucle pieces was apparent and there was degeneration of much of the muscle graft. Another, smaller population of 5-day myocytes had euchromatic nuclei and intact sarcolemmae. In 10- and 16-day grafts, continuity between ventricular and graft lumina was established and coalescence of graft pieces was apparent. Ultrastructurally, 10- and 16-day graft myocytes appeared to have fewer myofibrillae and increased amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum, polyribosomes, Golig complexes, and dense bodies when compared to uninjured ventricular myocytes. The peak of proliferative activity of graft cells was observed at 16 days. Electron microscopic autoradiography revealed breadkdown of myofibrillar structure in labeled myocytes, whereas in myocytes in the later stages of mitosis only scattered myofilaments and no Z bands were present. By 30 days, grafts appeared as an integrated structure composed primarily of cardiac muscle. Myocytes of 30-day grafts were observed in various stages of myofibrillogenesis and contained numberous 10-nm filaments. Seventy-day graft mycoytes had numberous well organized myofibrillae and intercellular junctions similar to those seen in uninjured ventricular myocytes.
Histone acetate is hydrolyzed rapidly in logarithmically dividing hepatoma tissue culture cells (Jackson, V., Shires, A., Chalkley, R. and Granner, D.K. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 4856--4863). The phenomenon has been analyzed further in hepatoma tissue culture cells at various stages of the cell cycle, in stationary phase, and in the presence of actinomycin D. We also investigated the phenomenon in Tetrahymena pyriformis macronuclei, bovine thymocytes, and human foreskin fibroblasts. The data suggest that this highly metabolically active histone acetylation while altered in mitotic cells, is independent of the overall rate of cell division, and is only slightly sensitive to actinomycin D. Finally, we conclude that the same general phenomenon is found in both cancerous and normal cells and is apparently common to cells from various stages of the evolutionary scale.