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Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to various concentrations of diethylmaleate (DEM) during a 42 degrees C incubation to determine if glutathione (GSH) compartmentalization was a factor in modification of thermal sensitivity. Cytoplasmic and mitochondrial GSH were isolated from CHO cells immediately after a hyperthermic treatment consisting of 2 h at 42 degrees C. Under these experimental conditions differential GSH depletion between the cytosol and mitochondrial compartments were observed. For example, 12 microM DEM was needed to deplete cytoplasmic GSH by 50% compared to 24 microM DEM needed to deplete mitochondrial GSH to the same level. Further, an ln-ln plot of the relative cytosolic GSH concentration vs the DEM concentration indicated a linear relationship (slope = -1.0). In contrast, the mitochondrial GSH plot exhibited a shoulder followed by a linear removal (slope = -0.90). Essentially the two linear curves were parallel. Analysis of thermal dose-response curves for cells exposed to between 10 and 100 microM DEM indicated that cell survival was unaffected by the addition of DEM until a critical concentration was surpassed. This threshold response was interpreted to mean that mitochondrial GSH depletion was the limiting factor.
Treatment of rats with methylandrostenediol (MAD), an anabolic androgen, caused a profound reduction (65%) in the level of cytochrome P-450 11 beta in rat adrenocortical mitochondria as measured by immunoblots using a specific antibody. The decreases in mitochondrial cytochrome P-450scc (15%) and adrenodoxin (20%) were much less than that observed for cytochrome P-45011 beta. A 35% decrease in adrenal microsomal cytochrome P-450 21 and NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase levels was brought about by the treatment with MAD. The data establish that the preferential decrease in adrenal steroid 11 beta-hydroxylase activity associated with androgen treatment results from a decrease in cytochrome P-450 11 beta. This is consistent with the role of 11-deoxycorticosterone in the pathogenesis of androgen-induced hypertension in rats.
To investigate the basis for the pattern of ovarian steroid production during the bovine estrous cycle, the tissue concentrations of major steroidogenic enzymes, 17 alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P-450 and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P-450 (cytochrome P-450scc), and their respective electron donors, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase and adrenodoxin, were estimated and compared with those of the nonsteroidogenic enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and F1-ATPase. The levels of these enzymes were estimated in medium sized (9-11 mm) and large (14-18 mm) follicles after removal of follicular fluid by centrifugation, and corpora lutea from the early, early-mid late-mid, and late stages of the luteal phase (n = 5 per group). The specific contents of all enzymes and electron donors were determined by immunoblot analysis, except for cytochrome c oxidase, which was quantified by determination of specific activity. The specific (per microgram of tissue homogenate protein) and total (per follicle or corpus luteum) tissue contents of 17 alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P-450 increased 0.5- and 5-fold respectively from medium sized to large follicles, but then decreased to undetectable levels in corpora lutea in the early luteal phase, and remained undetectable throughout the luteal phase. In contrast, the specific content of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase was similar between follicles and corpora lutea. The specific contents of cytochrome P-450scc, adrenodoxin and cytochrome c oxidase in follicles were similar to those of corpora lutea of the early luteal phase. However, by the early-mid luteal phase the specific contents of luteal cytochrome P-450scc (490 +/- 46 vs. 5709 +/- 982 cpm/micrograms protein) and adrenodoxin (44 +/- 15 vs. 705 +/- 229 cpm/micrograms protein) were increased, by 12- and 15-fold, respectively (P less than 0.05). In contrast, cytochrome c oxidase activity (29.1 +/- 10.1 vs. 108.6 +/- 20.7 nmol/mg tissue protein X min) and the specific content of F1-ATPase increased only 3- to 4-fold reflective of an increase in numbers of mitochondria. The levels of these enzymes remained elevated until the late luteal phase when they declined markedly. It is concluded that the induction of synthesis of P-450scc and adrenodoxin after ovulation is specific and does not merely reflect biogenesis of mitochondria during luteinization. Moreover the changes in the types of steroids produced by the ovarian compartments throughout the estrous cycle are a reflection of changes in the tissue content of steroidogenic enzymes.
The synthesis and maturation of the precursor forms of three mitochondrial enzymes involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis have been studied in vivo. Primary cultures of bovine adrenocortical cells were radiolabeled with [35S] methionine and newly synthesized cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P-450 (P-450scc), 11 beta-hydroxylase cytochrome P-450 (P-450(11)beta), and adrenodoxin immunoisolated using specific antibodies. Both the precursor and mature forms of P-450scc and P-450(11)beta were detected during short periods of pulse labeling; however, the precursor forms were transitory in nature while their corresponding mature forms accumulated. Pulse-chase experiments showed that the precursor form of each cytochrome P-450 had an apparent half-life of 3.5 min. In contrast, the precursor form of adrenodoxin was not readily detected in pulse-labeling experiments until a substantial amount of its mature form had accumulated. When the cultured cells were treated with a chelator of divalent cations (o-phenanthroline) or a mitochondrial uncoupler (dinitrophenol), the maturation of all three precursors was inhibited. The synthesis of the P-450scc and P-450(11)beta precursors was induced in cells maintained in the presence of adrenocorticotropin, and the rates of appearance of their processed forms were also increased. The mature forms of all three proteins were immunoisolated from a trypsinized mitochondrial fraction prepared from the radiolabeled cells, demonstrating that the mature proteins were localized within the organelle. These studies establish that the maturation of the precursor forms of the mitochondrial steroidogenic enzymes are characterized by steps similar to those reported for other mitochondrial precursor proteins.
The actions of ACTH to regulate the synthesis of the various enzymes involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis have been studied using bovine adrenocortical cells in monolayer culture. ACTH causes an increase in the synthesis of both the mitochondrial and the microsomal forms of cytochrome P-450 involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis, as well as of the iron-sulfur protein involved in transferring electrons to the mitochondrial forms of cytochrome P-450, namely, adrenodoxin. This increased synthesis is reflective of an increase in translatability of mRNA species specific for these various proteins, and appears in each case to be mediated by cyclic AMP. Whereas the mitochondrial proteins are synthesized as precursors of higher molecular weight which are processed upon insertion into the mitochondria, the microsomal proteins are synthesized as species identical in molecular weight to the mature forms. In order to determine whether the action of ACTH to increase the rate of synthesis of these proteins is the result of an increase in the levels of specific mRNA species, cDNA clones complementary to these mRNA species are being isolated. These probes will also make it possible to characterize the genes encoding the steroidogenic enzymes, as well as to identify regulatory elements which control their transcription.
Transfected, nonsteroidogenic COS-1 cells derived from monkey kidney are found to be capable of supporting the initial and rate-limiting step common to all steroidogenic pathways, the side-chain cleavage of cholesterol to produce pregnenolone. Endogenous COS-1 kidney cell renodoxin reductase and renodoxin are able to sustain low levels of this activity catalyzed by bovine cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc) whose synthesis is directed by a transfected plasmid containing P450scc cDNA. Double transfection with both P450scc and adrenodoxin plasmids leads to greater pregnenolone production and indicates that adrenodoxin plays a role as a substrate for this reaction or that bovine adrenodoxin serves as a better electron donor than the endogenous iron-sulfur protein renodoxin. Also it is found that both the bovine adrenodoxin and P450scc precursor proteins are proteolytically processed upon their uptake by COS-1 cell mitochondria to forms having the same electrophoretic mobility as mature bovine adrenodoxin and P450scc. Following triple transfection of COS-1 cells with P450scc, adrenodoxin, and 17 alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 plasmids, pregnenolone produced in mitochondria by the side-chain cleavage reaction can be further metabolized in the endoplasmic reticulum to 17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone. Although this functional steroidogenic pathway can be incorporated into this nonsteroidogenic cell type, it is found to be nonresponsive to cAMP, a potent activator of steroid hormone biosynthesis in adrenal cortex, testis, and ovary. Thus the cellular mechanisms necessary to support both microsomal and mitochondrial steroid hydroxylase activities appear not to be tissue specific, whereas the acute cAMP-dependent regulation of steroidogenesis is not present in transformed kidney (COS-1) cells.
Monoamine oxidase from various human tissues from several individuals was labeled with [3H]pargyline and solubilized by means of Triton X-100 or Triton X-100 and urea. The specificity of the labeling was assessed using various selective, reversible and irreversible inhibitors as pharmacologic tools in competition experiments. The labeled material was submitted to isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gels according to one- and two-dimensional electrophoretic procedures and with fluorographic detection. While the differences in electrophoretic mobility of the two subtypes, MAO-A and MAO-B, could be replicated the subtypes showed identical although heterogeneous charges in isoelectric focusing. This contrasts with recent findings of clear differences in the primary structure of monoamine oxidase subtypes and thus needs further clarification.
3-Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) is a lecithin-requiring mitochondrial enzyme which catalyzes the interconversion of 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate with NAD(H) as coenzyme. The purified enzyme devoid of lipid (i.e., the apodehydrogenase or apoBDH) can be reactivated with soluble lecithin or by insertion into phospholipid vesicles containing lecithin. Two different models have been proposed to explain the sigmoidal lipid activation curves. For both models, activation of BDH is assumed to require the binding of two lecithin molecules per functional unit. Activation of soluble enzyme (dimeric form) by short-chain (soluble) lecithin is consistent with a model in which lecithin binding is noncooperative, whereas activation of the membrane-bound enzyme (tetrameric form) indicates cooperativity between the lecithin binding sites. A new comprehensive model is presented in which lecithin is considered to be an essential allosteric activator that shifts the equilibrium between conformational states of the enzyme. Resonance energy transfer data, reflecting NADH binding to membrane-bound and soluble apoBDH, are consistent with such a lecithin-induced conformational change. Apparent dissociation constants for binding of NADH to BDH are approximately 10 microM and approximately 37 microM for BDH activated by bilayer and soluble lecithin, respectively. The maximal fluorescence resonance energy transfer (delta F max) increases with higher mole fraction of lecithin in the bilayer. The largest changes occur between mole fractions 0 and 0.13, thereby correlating with enzymic function. Essentially no binding of NADH is observed in the absence of lecithin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)