The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Transplantation of immunocompetent cells present within allogeneic bone marrow has been associated with the elimination of residual host leukemia, both in animal tumor models and in patients receiving marrow transplants for leukemia. This observation has been called the "graft-versus-leukemia effect." We have attempted to study this phenomenon in vitro by characterizing the cytolytic response of T cells from normal donors after in vitro activation with allogeneic leukemic cells. As expected, most T cells that react against an allogeneic patient's leukemic cells recognize their foreign HLA antigens and lyse the patient's nonleukemic remission lymphoid cells. In addition, we have shown that a small fraction of the T cells recognize and lyse foreign leukemic targets without lysis of nonmalignant remission targets from the same leukemic patient. These T cells have been isolated and characterized as CD3+, CD4+ cells expressing the alpha/beta T cell receptor (TCR). Their lysis appears to reflect specific antigen recognition mediated via the CD3-TCR complex and interactions involving the CD4 receptor. Some of these "leukemic specific" T cell lines, which are restricted by HLA class II molecules, can also lyse occasional nonleukemic cells from certain unrelated donors. This recognition appears to involve crossreactive determinants shared by the leukemic cells and the unrelated allogeneic nonleukemic cells. These specific interactions may represent an in vitro model of the graft-versus-leukemia effect.
The immune system of marine mammals is of comparative interest because of its adaptation to the aquatic environment. Little information, however, is available on its cellular and molecular components. Here, we used a cross-reactive antibody to MHC class II molecules and an immunoglobulin-specific antiserum for identifying these molecular species on lymphocytes of the bottlenosed dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Limited structural analyses indicated that class II molecules and immunoglobulins of dolphin closely resemble those of other vertebrates. In the peripheral blood of most land mammals both class II and immunoglobulins are usually found on B but not T lymphocytes. Expression of immunoglobulins on dolphin peripheral blood lymphocytes suggests a ratio of B cells to T cells comparable to that of land mammals. However, unlike the majority of land mammals, virtually 100% of the peripheral T cells display pronounced expression of class II molecules, generally considered an indication of T cell activation. It is therefore possible that the physiology of T cell activation has unusual attributes in the dolphin. It is especially interesting that some land mammals, namely swine (ungulates) and dogs and cats (carnivores), also express class II molecules on peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Since ungulates and carnivores are thought to share a common distant ancestry with toothed whales, the evolutionary history may be more relevant than the environmental history in determining these unusual attributes.
We have previously reported on the presence of a CArG motif at -100 in the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat which binds an avian nuclear protein termed enhancer factor III (EFIII) (A. Boulden and L. Sealy, Virology 174:204-216, 1990). By all analyses, EFIII protein appears to be the avian homolog of the serum response factor (SRF). In this study, we identify a second CArG motif (EFIIIB) in the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat enhancer at -162 and show only slightly lower binding affinity of the EFIII/SRF protein for this element in comparison with c-fos serum response element (SRE) and EFIII DNAs. Although all three elements bind the SRF with similar affinities, serum induction mediated by the c-fos SRE greatly exceeds that effected by the EFIII or EFIIIB sequence. We postulated that this difference in serum inducibility might result from binding of factors other than the SRF which occurs on the c-fos SRE but not on EFIII and EFIIIB sequences. Upon closer inspection of nuclear proteins which bind the c-fos SRE in chicken embryo fibroblast and NIH 3T3 nuclear extracts, we discovered another binding factor, SRE-binding protein (SRE BP), which fails to recognize EFIII DNA with high affinity. Competition analyses, methylation interference, and site-directed mutagenesis have determined that the SRE BP binding element overlaps and lies immediately 3' to the CArG box of the c-fos SRE. Mutation of the c-fos SRE so that it no longer binds SRE BP reduces serum inducibility to 33% of the wild-type level. Conversely, mutation of the EFIII sequence so that it binds SRE BP with high affinity results in a 400% increase in serum induction, with maximal stimulation equaling that of the c-fos SRE. We conclude that binding of both SRE BP and SRF is required for maximal serum induction. The SRE BP binding site coincides with the recently reported binding site for rNF-IL6 on the c-fos SRE. Nonetheless, we show that SRE BP is distinct from rNF-IL6, and identification of this novel factor is being pursued.