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OBJECTIVE - To test the hypothesis that children with sickle cell disease (SCD) who have an initial stroke temporally unrelated to another medical event are at higher risk for recurrent stroke than are children who had strokes temporally related to medical events.
METHODS - A retrospective cohort study of children with SCD and stroke who received regularly scheduled blood transfusions for a minimum of 5 years was conducted. Medical records were examined for the documentation of antecedent or concurrent medical events (hypertension, acute chest syndrome, aplastic crisis, fever associated with infection, exchange transfusion) associated with physician contact within 14 days before the initial stroke.
RESULTS - A total of 137 pediatric patients from 14 centers were studied. Mean age at first stroke was 6.3 years (1.4 to 14.0 years) with mean follow-up of 10.1 years (5 to 24 years). Thirty-one (22%) patients had a second stroke (2.2 per 100 patient years); 26 patients had an identified medical or concurrent event associated with their initial stroke. None of these patients had recurrent stroke 2 or more years after the initial event. The remaining 111 patients had an ongoing risk of recurrent stroke (1.9 per 100 patient-years) despite long-term transfusions (P =.038).
CONCLUSIONS - The absence of an antecedent or concurrent medical event associated with an initial stroke is a major risk factor for subsequent stroke while receiving regular transfusions.
Children with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) are at high risk for neurologically overt cerebral infarcts associated with stroke and neurologically silent cerebral infarcts correlated with neuropsychometric deficit. We used complete magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) histories from 266 HbSS children, aged 6 through 19 years, who were enrolled in the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (CSSCD) to examine silent infarct prevalence, localization, recurrence, and progression. We report a baseline prevalence of 21.8%, marginally higher than previously reported due to improved imaging technologies. Although we observed no overall sex difference in prevalence, most lesions in girls occurred before age 6, whereas boys remained at risk until age 10. Silent infarcts were significantly smaller and less likely to be found in the frontal or parietal cortex than were infarcts associated with stroke. Children with silent infarct had an increased incidence of new stroke (1.03/100 patient-years) and new or more extensive silent infarct (7.06/100 patient-years) relative to stroke incidence among all children in our cohort (0.54/100 patient-years). Both events were substantially less frequent than the risk of stroke recurrence among children not provided chronic transfusion therapy. Although chronic transfusion is known to decrease occurrence of new silent infarcts and strokes in children with elevated cerebral arterial blood flow velocity, further study is required to determine its risk-benefit ratio in children with silent infarct and normal velocities. Until safe and effective preventive strategies against infarct recurrence are discovered, MRI studies are best reserved for children with neurologic symptoms, neuropsychometric deficits, or elevated cerebral artery velocities.
OBJECTIVE - Our purpose was to determine whether a prior cesarean delivery affects the incidence of complications in women having an indicated midtrimester medical pregnancy termination.
STUDY DESIGN - A retrospective review of women who underwent a midtrimester medical termination of pregnancy from January 1980 to July 1995 ascertained obstetric history, uterotonic agent(s), and the occurrence of uterine rupture, blood transfusion, or curettage. The frequencies of maternal complications were compared in women with and without a prior cesarean section.
RESULTS - Our study population included 606 women with a mean gestational age of 21.1 +/- 3.1 weeks and a mean maternal age of 26.3 +/- 7 years. Seventy-nine (13%) had undergone a prior cesarean section. There was no significant difference in the need for curettage between women with and without a prior cesarean section. However, there was an increased need for blood transfusions in women with a prior cesarean delivery (11.4% vs 5.3%, odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 5.0, p = 0.04). The incidence of uterine rupture was significantly higher among women with a prior cesarean (3.8% vs 0.2%, odds ratio 20.8, 95% confidence interval 14.1 to 104, p = 0.008).
CONCLUSION - Our data suggest that a prior cesarean section is a risk factor for uterine rupture and blood transfusion in women having a midtrimester pregnancy termination.
Adjuvant treatment modalities, nutritional parameters, and allogenic blood transfusions are investigated as possible contributing variables which may adversely affect wound healing after tumor resections for musculoskeletal sarcomas. Statistical analysis determined that preoperative chemotherapy, depressed preoperative hematocrit, and allogenic blood transfusions (probably immunosuppression mediated) were the only significant factors affecting wound healing outcome. Suggestions to improve postoperative infection rates are discussed.
Although laboratory coagulation tests permit a rational approach to both diagnosis and management of coagulation disorders after cardiopulmonary bypass, their clinical utility is limited by delays in obtaining results. This study was designed to evaluate prospectively the impact of on-site coagulation testing on blood product use, operative time, and intraoperative management of microvascular bleeding. Patients who underwent cardiac procedures involving cardiopulmonary bypass and subsequently developed microvascular bleeding were randomly assigned to receive either standard therapy (n = 36) or therapy defined by a treatment algorithm based on results from an on-site coagulation monitoring laboratory (n = 30). No differences were found between treatment groups in hematologic assay data, operative procedures, or duration of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients treated in accordance with on-site laboratory results (algorithm therapy) received significantly less intraoperative fresh frozen plasma (0.4 +/- 1.1 U versus 2.4 +/- 2.8 U; p = 0.0006) during the treatment interval, had shorter operative times, and had less mediastinal chest tube drainage during the initial perioperative interval (158 +/- 169 ml versus 326 +/- 258 ml; p = 0.003) than did patients in the standard therapy group. Patients who underwent algorithm therapy also received fewer platelet (1.6 +/- 5.9 versus 6.4 +/- 8.2 U; p = 0.02) and red blood cell (1.9 +/- 1.7 U versus 4.1 +/- 4.1 U; p = 0.01) transfusions after the operation. Nine of 36 (25%) standard group patients received initial therapy which differed from that which would have been guided by the on-site algorithm protocol. Our findings indicate that rapid and accurate coagulation test results can guide specific therapy and optimize treatment of microvascular bleeding in patients who undergo cardiac operations.
A 36-year-old pregnant woman with anti-HPA1a antibodies underwent six fetal platelet concentrate transfusions. During the second, at 28 weeks' gestation, fetal asystole occurred in association with a post-transfusion platelet count of 813 x 10(9)/l. Asystole was reversed by an intracardiac partial exchange transfusion of normal saline for fetal blood, simultaneously reducing fetal plasma viscosity and enabling re-commencement of the fetal circulation.
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) status was assessed in 994 patients attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Kingston, Jamaica, between November 1990 and January 1991 for a new STD complaint. Of 515 heterosexual men, 36 (7.0%) were HTLV-I seropositive, as were 38 (7.9%) of 479 women. HTLV-I seroprevalence increased with age in women. A history of blood transfusion was associated with HTLV-I in both sexes, significantly so in men [odds ratio (OR) 4.7, confidence interval (CI) 1.1-17 for men; OR 1.9, CI 0.6-5.0 for women]. Further analysis excluded all persons reporting a transfusion. On multiple logistic regression analysis, independent associations with HTLV-I infection in men were shown for marital status (OR 3.5, CI 1.2-10 for married/common law vs. single/visiting unions), agricultural occupation (OR 9.0, CI 2.0-41), bruising during sex (OR 2.9, CI 1.0-8.1), > or = 15 years at first sexual intercourse (OR 2.9, CI 1.0-8.2), and a positive test for hepatitis B surface antigen (OR 7.3, CI 1.2-52). In women, associations were shown for two or more sex partners in the 4 weeks prior to complaint (OR 4.9, CI 1.8-13), 11 or more lifetime sexual partners (OR 5.9, CI 1.3-27), aged < 15 years at first sexual intercourse (OR 2.3, 1.0-5.4), bruising during sex (OR 2.7, CI 1.1-6.6), microhaemagglutination-Treponema pallidum positivity (OR 3.6, CI 1.6-8.4), and human immunodeficiency virus infection (OR 14, CI 2.1-92).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
A whole blood hemostasis system (Hepcon) provides both activated clotting time and accurate whole blood heparin concentration measurements via an automated protamine titration method. This study was designed to prospectively evaluate the impact of heparin and protamine administration using this system on the incidence and treatment of bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass. Two hundred fifty-four patients requiring cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled in this prospective study over a 7-month period. Patients treated with antifibrinolytic agents (aprotinin, epsilon-aminocaproic or tranexamic acid) were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned to either a control (n = 127) or intervention (n = 127) group. For control patients, the anticoagulation protocol consisted of an initial fixed dose of 250 U/kg of heparin, and additional 5000 U heparin doses were administered if the activated clotting time was less than 480 seconds. Heparin was neutralized with an initial fixed dose of protamine (0.8 mg protamine per milligram total heparin). For the intervention group, an initial dose of heparin was based on an automated heparin dose-response assay. Additional heparin doses were administered if the heparin concentration was less than the reference concentration or for an activated clotting time less than 480 seconds. The protamine dose was based on the residual heparin concentration. Treatment of excessive bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass was based on an algorithm using point-of-care testing with whole blood prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, heparinase activated clotting time, and platelet count. No differences between the two treatment groups were identified in reference to demographic factors, preoperative anticoagulant medications, preoperative coagulation data, number of reoperations, or combined procedures and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass. Indirect evidence for coagulation factor consumption was demonstrated in control patients by more prolonged whole blood prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time values after cardiopulmonary bypass when compared with values obtained in the intervention group. Patients in the intervention cohort received greater doses of heparin (intervention: 612 +/- 147, control: 462 +/- 114 U/kg, p < 0.0001) and had lower protamine to heparin ratios (intervention: 0.70 +/- 0.64, control: 0.94 +/- 0.21, p = 0.0001) compared with control patients. Patients in the intervention cohort received significantly fewer platelet (intervention: 1.7 +/- 3.6 U, control: 3.7 +/- 6.7 U, p = 0.003), plasma (intervention: 0.4 +/- 1.3 U, control: 1.4 +/- 2.5 U, p = 0.0001), and cryoprecipitate units (intervention: 0.0 +/- 0.0 U, control: 0.2 +/- 1.2 U, p = 0.04) during the perioperative interval than control patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
It has been proposed that a defect in tocopherol transport may lead to a chronic vitamin deficiency in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). To test this hypothesis, a pilot clinical trial which involved the infusion of tocopherol-laden plasma was carried out. An increased uptake of tocopherol into erythrocyte membranes during infusions failed to produce a significant reduction in plasma enzyme levels or to arrest the dystrophic process in the two children examined. Further studies to investigate treatments with increased amounts of tocopherol, in conjunction with other antioxidants, may prove a more fruitful avenue of research.
Administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in vitro or in vivo can activate a variety of immune effector functions involving T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. These immune cells and their secreted cytokines can potentially play a central role in the host antitumor response. With the isolation and cloning of the IL-2 gene, purified recombinant IL-2 has become available to test for clinical, immunologic, and antitumor effects. Early clinical studies suggest that the IL-2 doses required to induce antitumor effects are accompanied by severe life-threatening toxicity. Therefore, sustained treatment with lower doses of IL-2 has been developed that has a milder, acceptable toxicity. Most importantly, a small percentage of cancer patients experience significant shrinkage of their tumor with this IL-2 regimen alone. Further modification of this regimen is necessary. Preclinical studies indicate that combinations of IL-2 with other modalities may increase the therapeutic potential of the in vivo lymphokine-activated killer activity; combination therapy with other cytokines and monoclonal antibodies show significant promise. Furthermore, new technologic advances with the ability to produce human chimeric antibodies and bispecific hybrid antibodies has the potential to make combined IL-2 and antibody therapy more successful. IL-2 has been associated with overly optimistic expectations and overly negative reactions from physicians and the public. However, the immune activation induced by IL-2, the small number of clinical responses, and the preclinical data suggesting synergism with other approaches indicate that further development may make IL-2 part of a regimen that will enable better cancer treatment.