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Tissues from fetuses and neonates of control and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats were used to study the content and distribution of the hydrophobic surfactant protein B (SP-B) and the mRNAs for SP-B and SP-C using immunohistochemistry, RNA blotting, and tissue in situ hybridization. A dose of 50 mg/kg STZ was used to treat female rats before mating. The fetuses were sacrificed at fetal days 18 through 21 and neonates were obtained on neonatal days 1 and 2 (day of birth = end of day 22). At fetal day 18, SP-B was barely detectable by immunohistochemistry in control animals but the levels were progressively increased through gestation and easily detected by fetal day 21. At all fetal ages, SP-B was decreased in the STZ group compared with control animals. Both SP-B and SP-C mRNA were detectable at fetal day 18 in the control group and increased with advancing gestational age. In fetal lungs from the STZ group, SP-B and SP-C mRNA also showed an increase with advancing gestational age, but the levels were decreased compared with controls at fetal days 18, 20, and 21 (P less than 0.05). At fetal day 19, this difference did not achieve statistical significance. Differences between the two groups were no longer detected by neonatal days 1 and 2. The difference between the STZ and control groups, in both protein (SP-B) and mRNA (SP-B and SP-C), diminished with advancing fetal age but remained significant up to fetal day 21.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Atherosclerotic lesions are known to have metabolic alterations which are associated with progressive lipid accumulation. Among the changes, lysosomal enzyme activity has been extensively characterized and at the ultrastructural level has been correlated with the amount of foam cell lipid. In a fashion paralleling lysosomal change, artery wall peroxidase activity is also altered during disease progression. The present study focuses upon the ultrastructural localization of peroxidase activity in atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta and coronary arteries from White Carneau pigeons fed a cholesterol-supplemented (0.3%) diet for 3 years. This resulted in fibrous lesions, rich in smooth muscle cells. The birds were necropsied by perfusion fixation, and peroxidase cytochemistry was carried out using the diaminobenzidine reaction. Peroxidase activity was found within endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in both the media and intima, but cytochemically demonstrable activity was not found in macrophage foam cells. Peroxidase was localized within the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum, especially within cells that had lipid inclusions. The degree of peroxidase positivity varied within and among the arteries. In nonlesion regions of the aorta 20% of medial smooth muscle cells was peroxidase positive; the value for coronary artery smooth muscle cells was less. The peroxidase activity within aortic lesions was increased with 44% of intimal smooth muscle cells being positive. Notably, 85-90% of the lipid-containing intimal smooth muscle cells were positive. In contrast, intimal smooth muscle cells in the coronary artery lacked peroxidase reaction product, even in cells containing lipid. We conclude from these studies that aortic lesions contain a cytochemically differentiated subset of lipid-containing, peroxidase-positive smooth muscle cells; but coronary lesions lack a comparable subset of smooth muscle cells.
The ability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) to induce lung maturation was evaluated in fetal lambs. One member of 14 twin pairs between 114 and 138 days of gestation was infused intravenously with 0.5 mg ACTH over 5 days. The lungs of treated versus control lambs were judged more mature by morphologic criteria by the use of light and electron microscopy and by biochemical criteria by the use of lamellar-body-rich cell fractions. None of 5 premature lambs treated with ACTH and allowed to breathe showed evidence of hyaline membrane disease, while 3 untreated control lambs showed typical hyaline membranes.
In a study of 193 massively obese patients plasma lipoprotein concentrations were elevated in 94 patients and were within normal limits in 99 patients. Jejunoileal bypass, in addition to causing weight loss, lowered plasma lipids in both groups to normal or below normal levels.