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Studies were performed to investigate regulatory pathways of loop diuretic-sensitive Na+/K+/Cl- cotransport in cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells. Angiotensin II, alpha-thrombin, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) all stimulated Na+/K+/Cl- cotransport in a concentration-dependent manner. Pertussis toxin pretreatment reduced the effects of angiotensin II and alpha-thrombin but not that of EGF. Addition of the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine or down-regulation of protein kinase C by prolonged incubation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate partially reduced the effects of angiotensin II and alpha-thrombin and completely blunted the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced stimulation of Na+/K+/Cl- cotransport but did not affect EGF-induced stimulation. Exposure of cells to a calcium ionophore, A23187, resulted in a concentration-dependent stimulation of Na+/K+/Cl- cotransport, which was not significantly inhibited by down-regulation of protein kinase C but was completely inhibited by the calmodulin antagonist, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7). Stimulation of the cotransport by angiotensin II or alpha-thrombin was also partially inhibited by W-7. Inhibitory effects of protein kinase C down-regulation and W-7 were additive and, when combined, produced a complete inhibition of angiotensin II-induced stimulation of Na+/K+/Cl- cotransport. In saponin-permeabilized mesangial cells, phosphorylation of a synthetic decapeptide substrate for Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, Pro-Leu-Ser-Arg-Thr-Leu-Ser-Val-Ser-Ser-NH3, was demonstrated. Maximal activation of the decapeptide substrate phosphorylation required the presence of Ca2+ and calmodulin and was dependent on Ca2+ concentration. These findings indicate that stimulation of Na+/K+/Cl- cotransport by angiotensin II and alpha-thrombin is mediated by protein kinase C and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinases whereas the action of EGF is mediated by other pathways.
We tested a simple model which explains the singular or dual specificity of lipoxygenases. The dual specificity considered here is typified by the oxygenation of arachidonic acid by the reticulocyte lipoxygenase: two chiral products are formed (12S- and 15S-hydroperoxides, ratio approximately 1:9) via hydrogen abstraction from two separate methylene groups (C-10 and C-13). The rate-limiting step is known to involve this hydrogen abstraction, and we assumed that alignment of the methylenes with the hydrogen acceptor on the enzyme is critical in terms of reaction rate and positional specificity. Optimal alignment will be associated with a fast rate of reaction and formation of a single chiral product. A shift in position of the double bonds (and hence of the methylene groups) should be associated with a slower rate of reaction and formation of two chiral products; two methylenes are now able to react, although neither has perfect alignment. We tested this idea using two lipoxygenases and polyenoic fatty acids differing in the number and position of the double bonds. Optimal substrates for the soybean lipoxygenase had a doubly allylic methylene in the n-8 position, while the reticulocyte enzyme preferred substrates with a n-9 methylene. These substrates were converted to a single chiral product. With both enzymes, the other series of substrates reacted more slowly and were converted to two chiral products. We conclude that alignment of methylene groups of the substrate at the active site is a major determinant of the reaction rate and the singular or dual specificity of lipoxygenases.
Studies of the development of parasympathetic responsiveness in embryonic chick hearts have demonstrated that between days 2.5 and 10 in ovo the ability of muscarinic agonists to inhibit adenylate cyclase activity increases 10-fold in parallel with a 2.7-fold increase in the level of alpha i and alpha o. Thus, muscarinic inhibition of adenylate cyclase increases in parallel with an increase in alpha o and alpha i. These data suggest that changes in levels of guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins control, at least in part, the appearance of a parasympathetic response in the heart during embryonic development of the chick.
Escherichia coli expression vectors containing the trc promoter and the complete DNA sequence of either the precursor or the mature form of bovine adrenocortical cholesterol side chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc) were transformed into E. coli strain JM109 and transcription induced with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Immunoreactive cytochrome P450scc was produced using the plasmid containing the mature P450scc sequence but not with the plasmid containing the sequence of the precursor form of P450scc, even though P450scc RNA was detectable in both cases. The mature form of P450scc was detected spectrophotometrically in a reduced CO-difference spectrum in E. coli (40-60 nmol/liter culture). Cholesterol and hydroxylated derivatives (22-hydroxycholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol) produce a type 1 substrate-binding spectrum in IPTG-induced, transformed E. coli. The P450scc was found to be associated with the E. coli membrane fraction and the enzymatic activity of side chain cleavage of 25-hydroxycholesterol was reconstituted using solubilized membranes, in the presence of purified bovine adrenocortical adrenodoxin and NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase (turnover number; 15.4 nmol/min/nmol P450). This bacterial expression system provides functional P450scc, in the absence of other forms of P450, which can be used for evaluation of enzymatic and spectral properties of this mitochondrial P450 by site-directed mutagenesis.
The noncollagenous (NC1) domain hexamer of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) collagen is composed of a multiplicity of monomeric and dimeric subunits, and specific subunits are the targets for anti-GBM autoantibodies of patients with Goodpasture (GP) syndrome. The identity of GBM monomers has been established and the alpha 3(IV)NC1 monomer identified as the one that binds GP antibodies (Gunwar, S., Saus, J., Noelken, M. E., and Hudson, B. G. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 5466-5469). In the present study, the chain origin of 25 dimeric components and the identity of those that bound the anti-GBM antibodies from two GP patients were determined. This was accomplished by NH2-terminal sequence analysis and immunoblotting analysis of dimeric components that were resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis in combination with high pressure liquid chromatography. The results revealed that (a) the components are mainly homodimers of the NC1 domains of alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 4, and probably alpha 5 chains of collagen IV, reflecting a specificity of promoter-promoter association and (b) each homodimer had several size and charge isoforms. The GP antibodies bound exclusively to both alpha 3(IV)NC1 monomers and dimers and not to other basement membrane constituents. These findings provided new insights about the structure of GBM collagen and together with our previous findings firmly established the alpha 3(IV) chain as the target for the anti-GBM antibodies that mediate glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage in patients with Goodpasture syndrome.
Adenylylcyclase cannot be activated by hormones or guanine nucleotide analogs in membranes from cells that express the G226A mutant form Gs alpha instead of the wild-type protein. The mutant Gs alpha protein appears incapable of undergoing the conformational change necessary for guanine nucleotide-induced dissociation of the G protein alpha subunit from the beta gamma subunit complex (Miller, R.T., Masters, S.B., Sullivan, K.A., Beiderman, B., and Bourne, H.R. (1988) Nature 334, 712-715). G226A Gs alpha was synthesized in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. Examination of the kinetics of dissociation of guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S) suggests that G226A Gs alpha is incapable of assuming the conformation necessary for high affinity binding of Mg2+ to the alpha subunit-GTP gamma S complex. Associated changes include the failure of Mg2+ and GTP gamma S to confer resistance to tryptic proteolysis upon the protein, to enhance intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, or to cause dissociation of alpha from beta gamma. However, the GTPase activity of the mutant protein is near normal (at high Mg2+ concentrations), and the protein is capable of activating adenylylcyclase. A similar defect is present in G49V Gs alpha. Failure of G protein subunit dissociation appears to be the explanation for the phenotypic properties of cells that express G226A Gs alpha, and this mutation thus highlights the crucial nature of this reaction as a component of G protein action.
Phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC-gamma 1) is a substrate for several receptor tyrosine kinases and its catalytic activity is increased by tyrosine phosphorylation. However, the biological significance of this molecule in normal or malignant human epithelial cell proliferation is unknown. We determined the relative content of PLC-gamma 1 in primary human mammary carcinomas and in nonmalignant mammary tissues. By Western blot and immunohistochemistry, considerably higher levels of PLC-gamma 1 protein were detectable in the majority of carcinomas and in one of two benign fibroadenomas compared to normal breast tissues. In 18 of 21 carcinomas that contained high levels of PLC-gamma 1, the presence of phosphotyrosine on PLC-gamma 1 could also be detected. All carcinomas in which tyrosine phosphorylated PLC-gamma 1 was present also expressed detectable levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor or erbB-2, two tyrosine kinases known to phosphorylate this enzyme. Thus, a high percentage of mammary carcinomas concomitantly display increased levels of receptor tyrosine kinases and a direct tyrosine phosphorylation substrate, thereby potentially amplifying two successive steps in a signal transduction pathway.
Although the genetic code is defined by a linear array of nucleotides, it is the three-dimensional structure of the double helix that regulates most of its cellular functions. Over the past two decades, it has become increasingly clear that aspects of this three-dimensionality which reflect topological relationships within the double helix (i.e., superhelical twisting, knotting, or tangling) influence virtually every facet of nucleic acid physiology. In vivo, DNA topology is modulated by ubiquitous enzymes known as topoisomerases. The type II enzyme is essential to the eukaryotic cell and is required for unlinking daughter chromosomes and maintaining chromosome structure. Moreover, topoisomerase II also has been identified as the primary cellular target for several widely used antineoplastic drugs. Before the physiological functions of topoisomerase II can be effectively dissected or its drug interactions fully exploited, it is imperative to understand the mechanism by which this important enzyme carries out its catalytic cycle.
Human tissues contain two enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of the 15-hydroxy group of prostaglandins: NAD-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase which is fairly specific for prostaglandins and NADP-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase with low specificity for prostaglandins. The recent determination of the amino acid sequence of the NAD-dependent enzyme has revealed similarities with a number of oxidoreductases with distinct specificities that constitute the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of NADP-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase with the sequences of the NAD-dependent enzyme and other short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases revealed the same similarities, identifying the NADP-dependent enzyme as a short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase. The degree of homology between the two 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenases is similar to the one between each of the two enzymes and other members of the family indicating an early evolutionary divergence of the two proteins.