The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
OBJECTIVE - To assess the evolution of treatment and outcome for resected esophageal cancer at a single institution.
SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA - Strategies for optimizing the treatment of resected esophageal cancer continue to evolve over time. The outcomes of these evolving treatments in the context of improved diagnostic staging and changing epidemiology have not been carefully analyzed in a single institution.
METHODS - One thousand ninety-seven consecutive patients with primary esophageal cancer underwent surgery during the period 1970 to 2001. Nine hundred ninety-four patients underwent curative esophagectomy and were analyzed for changing demographics. Eight hundred seventy-nine patients who did not have systemic metastases and survived the perioperative period were assessed by multivariate analysis for factors associated with long-term survival.
RESULTS - During the study period the overall median survival increased from 17 to 34 months, and combined hospital and 30-day mortality decreased from 12% to 6%. The R0 resection rate increased from 78 to 94%, and adenocarcinoma replaced squamous cell carcinoma as the predominant histology (83% vs. 17%). No change in survival with time was noted for patients treated with surgery alone having the same postoperative pathologic stage (pTNM). An increased proportion of patients had preoperative chemoradiation in the last 4 years of the study (59% vs. 2%). Preoperative chemoradiation was associated with a longer survival and increased likelihood of achieving a complete resection. Multivariate analysis showed that long-term survival was associated with a complete resection and the preoperative staging strategy used, while the use of preoperative chemoradiation was the most significant factor associated with ability to achieve an R0 esophageal resection.
CONCLUSIONS - This study shows favorable trends in the survival of patients with resected esophageal cancer over time. The increased use of preoperative chemoradiation, better preoperative staging, and other time-dependent factors may have contributed to the observed increase in survival.
OBJECTIVE - To determine whether the presence of an advance directive at admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) influenced the decision to initiate life support therapy in critically ill cancer patients.
DESIGN - Matched-pairs case-control design.
SETTING - The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center ICU.
PATIENTS - Of 872 patients treated in the ICU from 1994 to 1996, 236 (27%) were identified as having advance directives. One hundred thirty five patients who had advance directives were successfully matched to 135 patients who did not on the basis of type of malignancy, reason for admission to ICU, severity of illness, and age. These pairs comprised the study group.
INTERVENTIONS - Life-supporting interventions were compared between the matched groups using the McNemar and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed ranks tests.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - No significant difference was found in the frequency with which the following interventions were applied in patients with and without advance directives (respectively): mechanical ventilation, 44% vs. 42%; inotropic support, 31% vs. 31%; pulmonary artery catheterization, 11% vs. 12%; cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 7% vs. 12%; and renal dialysis, 3% vs. 7%. There were also no differences in ICU (75% vs. 73%, respectively) or hospital (56% vs. 59%, respectively) survival. More patients with advance directives than those without had do-not-resuscitate orders within the first 72 hrs (19% vs. 11%, p =.046) and patients with advance directives had shorter ICU durations and lower ICU charges than patients without advance directives.
CONCLUSIONS - After controlling for type of malignancy, reason for admission to the ICU, severity of illness, and age, the decision to initiate life-supporting interventions did not differ significantly among patients with and without advance directives. The presence of an advance directive, however, may have helped guide decisions earlier regarding duration of therapy and resuscitation status.
OBJECTIVE - Primary sarcomas involving the chest wall requiring full-thickness excision are rare. We reviewed our experience with these lesions in a tertiary referral cancer center by using multidisciplinary approaches.
METHODS - A 10-year retrospective study identified 51 patients referred with primary sarcomas of the chest wall: 40 for initial treatment and 11 after previous unsuccessful surgical excisions elsewhere (secondary referral). Presenting symptoms were pain alone in 23 (45%) of 51 patients, pain with an associated mass in 8 (16%) patients, and an asymptomatic mass alone in 13 (25%) patients. Median symptom duration was 241 days in the primary group and 225 days in the recurrent group. Tumor locations were the sternum (n = 11), the rib alone (n = 36), and the posterior rib with extension into vertebral bodies (n = 4). Histologic types included the following: chondrosarcomas (n = 15), malignant fibrous histiocytomas (n = 9), osteosarcomas (n = 4), Ewing sarcomas (n = 3), desmoid tumors (n = 7), and other types (n = 13). The median tumor volume of those referred initially was 311 cm(3) compared with 84 cm(3) in patients with recurrent lesions.
RESULTS - Twenty-six (51%) of 51 patients received treatment before resection, including chemotherapy alone (n = 22), radiation alone (n = 3), and combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy (n = 1). The complete sternum was removed in 6 of 11 patients, and the average number of ribs requiring resection was 3.8. Four patients had vertebral body resections. Prosthetic meshes alone were required in 16 of 51 patients, and meshes with methylmethacrylate were required in 18 of 51 patients. Muscle flap reconstructions by plastic surgery were required in 24 patients. Negative margins were obtained in 47 of 51 patients. There were no perioperative deaths with morbidities occurring in 12 (24%) of 51 patients (wound [n = 3], prolonged air leak [n = 1], prolonged ventilator requirement [n = 1], arrhythmias [n = 3], doxorubicin (Adriamycin)-induced cardiomyopathy [n = 1], and other [n = 3]). Postoperative treatment was administered to 13 patients (chemotherapy alone, n = 9; chemotherapy with radiation therapy, n = 4). The cumulative 5-year survival of all patients was 64% (initial referral, 61.3%; secondary referral, 72.7%). The average follow-up is 44.7 months.
CONCLUSIONS - A combined aggressive multidisciplinary approach to primary sarcomas of the chest wall resulted in no treatment-related deaths and a cumulative 5-year survival of 64% in patients referred to our tertiary care cancer center.
PURPOSE - Superior sulcus tumors (SST) of the lung are uncommon and constitute approximately 3% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These tumors cause specific symptoms and signs, and are associated with patterns of failure that differ from those seen for NSCLC tumors in other nonapical locations. Prognostic factors and most effective treatments are controversial. We conducted a retrospective study at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center to identify outcome predictors for patients with SST treated by a multidisciplinary approach.
METHODS AND MATERIALS - This retrospective review of 143 patients without distant metastasis at presentation is a continuation of a previous M. D. Anderson study now updated to 1994. In this study, we examine the 5-year survival rate by pretreatment tumor and patient characteristics and by the treatments received. Strict criteria were used to define SST. Actuarial life-table analyses and Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare survival rates.
RESULTS - Overall predictors of 5-year survival were weight loss (p < 0.01), supraclavicular fossa (p = 0. 03), or vertebral body (p = 0.05) involvement, stage of the disease (p < 0.01), and surgical treatment (p < 0.01). Five-year survival for patients with Stage IIB disease was 47% compared to 14% for Stage IIIA, and 16% for Stage IIIB. For patients with Stage IIB disease, surgical treatment (p < 0.01) and weight loss (p = 0.01) were significant independent predictors of 5-year survival. Among patients with Stage IIIA disease, the only predictor of survival was Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (p = 0.02). For patients with Stage IIIB disease, the only independent predictor of survival was a right superior sulcus location, which was associated with a worse 5-year survival rate than that for patients with tumors in the left superior sulcus (p = 0.02). More patients with adenocarcinoma than with squamous cell tumors experienced cerebral metastases within 5 years (p < 0.01). Patients without gross residual disease after surgical resection who received postoperative radiation therapy with total doses of 55 to 64 Gy had a 5-year survival rate of 82% as compared with the 5-year survival rate of 56% in patients who received 50 to 54 Gy. Twenty-three patients survived for longer than 3 years. Of these, 4 patients (17%) received radiation therapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy without surgical resection. The other 19 patients (83%) had resection combined with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS - The findings from this study confirm the importance of the new staging system, separating T3 N0 M0 (Stage IIB) from Stage IIIA, since there was a significant difference in the 5-year survival (p < 0.01). Interestingly, there was no significant 5-year survival difference between Stage IIIA (N2) and Stage IIIB (T4 or N3). This study also suggests that surgery is an important component of the multidisciplinary approach to patients with SST if their nodes were negative. Disease that is minimally invading surrounding normal structures can be resected followed by radiation therapy in doses of 55 to 64 Gy. Further investigation of treatment strategies combining high-dose radiation therapy (>/=66 Gy) with chemotherapy is indicated for patients with unresectable and/or node-positive (N2) SST.
BACKGROUND - Previous studies have shown that a chronic indwelling pleural catheter (PC) safely and effectively relieved dyspnea, maintained quality of life, and reduced hospitalization in patients with malignant pleural effusions. Outpatient management of malignant pleural effusion with a PC may reduce length of stay and early (7-day) charges compared with inpatient management with chest tube and sclerosis.
METHODS - A retrospective review of consecutive PC patients (n = 100; 60 outpatient, 40 inpatient) were treated from July 1, 1994 to September 2, 1998 and compared with 68 consecutive inpatients treated with chest tube and sclerosis between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 1997. Hospital charges were obtained from date of insertion (day 0) through day 7.
RESULTS - Demographics were similar in both groups. Pretreatment cytology was positive in 126 of 168 patients (75%), negative in 21 (12.5%), and unknown in 21 (12.5%). Primary histology included lung (n = 61, 36%), breast (n = 39, 23%), lymphoma (n = 12, 7%), or other (n = 56, 34%). Median survival was 3.4 months and did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Overall median length of stay was 7.0 days for inpatient chest tube and inpatient PC versus 0.0 days for outpatient Pleurx. No mortality occurred related to the PC. Eighty-one percent (81/100) of PC patients had no complications. One or more complications occurred in 19 patients (19%). Patients treated with outpatient PC (n = 60) had early (7-day) mean charges of $3,391 +/- $1,753 compared with inpatient PC (n = 40, $11,188 +/- $7,964) or inpatient chest tube (n = 68, $7,830 +/- $4,497, SD) (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS - Outpatient PC may be used effectively and safely to treat malignant pleural effusions. Hospitalization is not required in selected patients. Early (7-day) charges for malignant pleural effusion are reduced in outpatient PC patients compared with inpatient PC patients or chest tube plus sclerosis patients.
Complex disorders such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, asthma, hypertension and psychiatric illnesses account for a large and disproportionate share of health care costs, but remain poorly characterized with respect to aetiology. The transmission of such disorders is complex, reflecting the actions and interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Genetic analyses that allow for the simultaneous consideration of susceptibility from multiple regions may improve the ability to map genes for complex disorders, but such analyses are currently computationally intensive and narrowly focused. We describe here an approach to assessing the evidence for statistical interactions between unlinked regions that allows multipoint allele-sharing analysis to take the evidence for linkage at one region into account in assessing the evidence for linkage over the rest of the genome. Using this method, we show that the interaction of genes on chromosomes 2 (NIDDM1) and 15 (near CYP19) makes a contribution to susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in Mexican Americans from Starr County, Texas.
The high affinity receptor for sulphonylureas, expressed on the beta cells of the pancreas, plays a crucial role in the control of insulin secretion. Mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of the sulphonylurea receptor (SUR) gene that disrupt the regulation of insulin secretion have been previously described. In the present study, the potential role of genetic variation in the SUR gene has been investigated in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) through linkage studies with microsatellite markers tightly linked to the SUR gene. The microsatellite markers were typed in 346 Mexican-American NIDDM affected sib pairs derived from 176 families and an additional 110 ethnically and geographically matched control subjects. No evidence of linkage, based on allele sharing, or association based on allele frequencies in patients and control subjects, for any microsatellite marker and NIDDM was observed in this population. These results suggest that genetic variation in the SUR gene does not play a major role in susceptibility to NIDDM in the Mexican-American population.