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Reactivity of platelets with an artificial surface exposed to whole blood is correlated with the concentration of adsorbed fibrinogen detectable by antifibrinogen antibodies. To examine the effect on platelets of the organization (distribution, orientation, conformation) of fibrinogen adsorbed on a hydrophobic surface, we studied the binding of polyclonal and monoclonal antifibrinogen antibodies to polyalkyl methacrylate polymers previously exposed to purified fibrinogen solution or diluted plasma and compared the results with platelet retention in methacrylate bead columns. There was an increase in platelet retention following diluted plasma pretreatment, which was eliminated by a polyclonal antibody against fibrinogen or against a gamma-(395-411) peptide from fibrinogen and was reduced by monoclonal antibodies (4A5, 4-2) against other COOH-terminal gamma-chain epitopes. Monoclonal antibody 10E5 against the fibrinogen receptor GpIIb/IIIa totally inhibited platelet retention in the bead columns. Our data suggest that different methacrylate polymers induce different changes in adsorbed fibrinogen, which may interfere with its interaction with platelets, and that platelet retention in a methacrylate bead column involves interaction of the COOH-terminal end of the gamma-chain of adsorbed fibrinogen with platelet GpIIb/IIIa receptors.
BACKGROUND - Platelet activation occurs in vivo during pharmacologic thrombolysis and may contribute to recurrent thrombosis. Plasmin does not directly activate platelets except at high concentrations; thus, the mechanisms for platelet activation during thrombolysis remain undefined. Increases in thrombin activity also occur in patients treated with fibrinolytic agents and may contribute to activation of platelets. We have shown that one mechanism for increased thrombin activity is activation of the coagulation system by plasmin.
METHODS AND RESULTS - In the present study we sought to determine whether activation of platelets in response to pharmacologic activation of plasminogen in plasma is due primarily to plasmin or mediated by increased thrombin activity. Platelet-rich citrated plasma (PRP) was recalcified and incubated with 1,000 IU/ml of streptokinase or 1.0 caseinolytic units/ml of plasmin. Concentrations of fibrinopeptide A, a marker of thrombin activity, increased markedly over 10 minutes in plasma incubated with streptokinase or plasmin, but not in PRP incubated without plasminogen activator. Platelet activation characterized by the secretion of 14C-serotonin occurred within 2-4 minutes after thrombin activity increased. In stirred recalcified PRP, platelet aggregation was accelerated from 3.6 +/- 0.5 to 2.5 +/- 0.3 minutes (p less than 0.01) when incubated with 1,000 IU/ml of streptokinase. Leupeptin and aprotinin, inhibitors of plasmin activity, markedly attenuated platelet activation in response to pharmacologic activation of plasminogen. However, inhibition of thrombin with heparin, hirudin, or D-Phe-D-Pro-L-Arg-chloromethylketone was more effective in inhibiting the acceleration of platelet activation induced by plasminogen activation, despite the elaboration of plasmin activity.
CONCLUSIONS - Activation of platelets during coronary thrombolysis may be due in part to increased procoagulant activity induced by plasminogen activation as well as other factors that promote platelet activation in vivo.
Recent studies have revealed that the sequence of amino acids asp-gly-glu-ala represents an essential determinant of the site within the alpha 1(I)-CB3 fragment of collagen recognized by the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin cell surface collagen receptor (Staatz et al., 1991). Studies employing chemical modifications of collagen amino acid side chains confirm both the essential nature of the acidic side chains of aspartic acid and glutamic acid residues and the nonessentiality of lysine epsilon-amino groups in supporting adhesion mediated by the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin. The approach also indicates the presence of a distinct determinant on collagen separate from the alpha 2 beta 1 recognition site that contains essential lysine side chains and that is necessary for subsequent interactions with the platelet surface that give rise to collagen-induced platelet activation and secretion. The two-step, two-site model for cellular signaling involving both an integrin and a signal-transducing coreceptor suggested by these data may be common to other integrin-mediated processes.
Hemodynamic shear is known to stimulate blood and endothelial cells and induce platelet activation. Many studies of shear-induced platelet stimulation have employed rotational viscometers in which secondary flow effects are assumed to be negligible. Shear induced platelet activation occurs at elevated shear rates where secondary flows may contribute a significant percentage of the total hydrodynamic force experienced by the sample. Elongational stress, one component of this secondary flow, has been shown to alter transmembrane ion flux in intact cell and the permeability of synthetic membrane preparations. Elongational flow also occurs in the vasculature at sites of elevated shear stress. Secondary flow components may contribute to platelet activation induced during shear stress application in rotational viscometry. A unique 'constrained convergence' elongational flow chamber was designed and fabricated to study platelet response to elongational stress exposure. The elongational flow chamber was capable of producing an elongation rate of 2.1 s-1 with a corresponding volume averaged shear rate of 58.33 s-1. Significant changes were observed in the total platelet volume distribution and measured response to added chemical antagonists after elongational stress exposure. The total platelet volume histogram shifted toward larger particle sizes, suggesting the formation of large aggregates as a result of elongational stress exposure. Platelets exposed to elongational stress demonstrated a dose dependent decrease in added ADP-induced aggregation rate and extent of aggregation.
We have used platelets as a model system to study the function of c-src in signal transduction and cell adhesion. Numerous proteins were found to be phosphorylated on tyrosine in response to thrombin-induced platelet activation and aggregation. Two phases of phosphorylation were observed, with the second phase, but not the first, being inhibited by blocking platelet aggregation with an Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser tetrapeptide. As a first step towards identifying those proteins phosphorylated on tyrosine and to determine the specific role of p60src during platelet activation, we looked for changes in p60src kinase activity and for associations of p60src with other tyrosine phosphoproteins. The data presented here demonstrate an increase in p60src kinase activity within 1 min of thrombin-induced activation. Furthermore, p60src transiently associates with a tyrosine phosphoprotein during platelet activation and aggregation. This tyrosine phosphoprotein, p80/85, is a previously characterized cytoskeletal substrate for v-src in transformed cells. The data presented here suggest a model in which p60src functions in platelets to link upstream events, such as cell-surface adhesive interactions, with changes in platelet shape and cytoskeletal organization.