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Sequence-specific proton nuclear magnetic resonance (n.m.r.) assignments for all 99 amino acid residues of French bean Cu(I) plastocyanin are described. The assignments were made using standard sequential assignment procedures and were greatly facilitated by the availability of complete spin system assignments. The characteristic short NOE connectivities between backbone protons, the values of 3JHN alpha, and the locations of slowly exchanging backbone amide protons, identify and define the elements of regular secondary structure. Eight well-defined beta-strands, a small helical segment and eight tight turns can be identified unambiguously. On the basis of a very extensive set of inter-strand NOE connectivities, the beta-strands can be packed into two distinct beta-sheets. Over 80% of the residues in the protein can be assigned to some regular element of secondary structure. The n.m.r. data is sufficient to define the chain folding topology, which is that of a Greek key beta-barrel, and provides a qualitative description of the global fold. The overall structure of French bean plastocyanin in solution is very similar to that of poplar plastocyanin in crystals. Significant local differences are, however, observed, particularly in the loops connecting some of the beta-strands.
The identification of the spin systems that comprise the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of French bean Cu(I) plastocyanin (Mr 10,600) has been made using an approach that integrates a wide range of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. A very large percentage of these assignments has been obtained in spectra acquired from 1H2O solution using a backbone amide-based strategy. The spin systems of 91 of the 99 residues have been assigned to the appropriate amino acid, thereby providing an ample basis for obtaining sequence-specific assignments, as described in the accompanying paper.
Rate constants for the reactions of horse cytochrome c (E'0 of +260 mV) with the copper proteins Anabaena variabilis plastocyanin (E'0 of +360 mV) used as oxidant and stellacyanin (E'0 of +187 mV) used as reductant have been determined at 25 degrees C, pH 7.5 and 7.0, respectively, and an ionic strength of 0.10 M (NaCl). These rate constants were also measured with eight different singly substituted 4-carboxy-2,6-dinitrophenyl (CDNP) horse cytochrome c derivatives, modified at lysine-7, -13, -25, -27, -60, -72, -86, or -87 and with the trinitrophenyl (TNP) derivative modified at lysine-13. The influence of the modifications on the bimolecular rate constants for these reactions defines the region on the protein that is involved in the electron-exchange reactions and demonstrates that the preferred site is at or near the solvent-accessible edge of the heme prosthetic group on the "front" surface of the molecule. Both reactions are strongly influenced by the lysine-72 modification to the left of the exposed heme edge and, to this extent, behave similar to the earlier studied reaction with azurin. These effects span only an order of magnitude in rate constants and are thus many times smaller than those for the physiological protein redox partners of cytochrome c. While the preferred sites of reaction on the surface of cytochrome c for small inorganic complexes appear to be dependent only on the net charge of the reactants, with the copper proteins additional factors intervene. These influences are discussed in terms of hydrophobic patches and the distribution of charges on the surface of the four copper proteins so far examined.
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) that bind to beta-glycosyl Yariv antigens have been purified from the culture medium and plasma membrane of "Paul's Scarlet" rose cells. Starting from culture medium or from plasma membrane vesicles prepared by aqueous two-phase partitioning, the purification procedure involved Yariv antigen-induced precipitation and subsequent chromatographic steps. Two fractions, AGP-(a) and AGP-(b), were obtained from the culture medium, and one AGP fraction was obtained from the plasma membrane. The glycosyl compositions of all three fractions were dominated by arabinosyl and galactosyl residues and included glucuronosyl and other minor residues. Methylation analysis showed that AGP-(a) and AGP-(b) were both highly branched 3,6-galactans with terminal arabinofuranosyl substituents. The amino acid compositions of all three AGPs were high in alanine, hydroxyproline, and serine and/or threonine. The amino-terminal sequence of AGP-(b) contained an alanine-hydroxyproline repeat. While sharing general structural similarity, the AGPs from the plasma membrane and the culture medium were distinguishable by composition and by size and charge, with the plasma membrane AGPs being larger and more negatively charged than the culture medium AGPs.