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Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) with carbodiimide and were purified by affinity chromatography sequentially over BSA-agarose and NAAG-agarose resins. Solid-phase RIA revealed a distinct pattern of specificity of the antibodies for N-acetylated acidic peptides, with highest signal obtained for NAAG, and essentially no immunoreactivity demonstrable for aspartate or glutamate. Coronal sections through carbodiimide-fixed rat olfactory bulb were incubated with the purified antiserum and antigen localization visualized by the avidin-biotin peroxidase techniques. Immunoreactivity was restricted to the mitral cells, the major excitatory projection neurons of the lateral olfactory tract, a putative glutamatergic pathway. Immunoreactivity was selectively blocked by preincubation of the antibody with 1 microgram/ml of NAAG-BSA. These results demonstrate a specific neuronal localization of NAAG-like immunoreactivity and support the candidacy of NAAG as a neurotransmitter of the lateral olfactory tract.
Platelet adhesion and aggregation are mediated by fibrinogen via the receptor glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) amino-acid sequence. We investigated the ability of 8-guanidino-octanoyl-Asp-Phe (SC-49992), an intravenously infused, stable RGD analogue, to inhibit human platelet function in vitro and to reduce in vivo canine platelet deposition on prosthetic grafts. Human platelet aggregation induced by 10 mumol/L adenosine diphosphate was inhibited in a concentration dependent manner with an ED50 of 1 microgram/ml of SC-49992. Adenosine diphosphate-induced secretion, which is dependent on fibrinogen occupancy of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, was reduced in a concentration dependent manner, also with an ED50 of 1 microgram/ml. Thrombin-induced secretion, which is independent of fibrinogen binding, was unaffected. Activation-dependent platelet adhesion to fibrinogen substrates was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by SC-49992. Platelet adhesion to fibronectin substrates was also reduced by the analogue, but to a lesser extent. SC-49992 effectively eluted glycoprotein IIb/IIIa bound to RGD derivatized sepharose. Eight thrombosis-prone dogs had polytetrafluoroethylene femoral artery grafts placed. Dogs received the RGD analogue or a normal saline infusion during their first graft procedure. One week later a second contralateral femoral graft with infusion of the other agent was performed. Aggregometry during RGD analogue infusion demonstrated inhibition of induced aggregation, whereas normal saline infusion had no effect. As measured by the adherence of platelets labeled with indium III 8-guanidino-octanoyl-Asp-Phe reduced platelet deposition on vascular grafts by more than 90% (p = 0.0006, log transformed data, paired t test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Carbon disulfide (CS2) is an industrial solvent used in rayon production and as an organic synthetic precursor. It is also a member of the class of neuropathy-inducing xenobiotics known as the "neurofilament (NF) neurotoxicants". Current hypotheses propose direct reaction of CS2 with NF lysine epsilon-amine moieties as a step in the mechanism of this neuropathy. In this study, covalent CS2 binding in a lysine-containing dipeptide and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) in vitro was characterized. Dipeptide and BSA, incubated with 14CS2, exhibited stable incorporation of radioactivity after removal of unbound CS2 and reincubation in physiological buffer for up to 10 days. In contrast, free thiol levels decreased from a maximum immediately following CS2 exposure to near-base-line levels after 10 days, consistent with time-dependent conversion of initially formed N-substituted dithiocarbamate adducts into secondary products. HPLC/thermospray-MS and HPLC/UV photodiode-array analysis of CS2-dipeptide adducts confirmed dithiocarbamate formation and demonstrated their conversion into N-alkylisothiocyanates and, ultimately, N,N'-disubstituted thioureas and ureas. The results of UV spectrophotometry of CS2-treated BSA were also consistent with loss of dithiocarbamate and appearance of thioureas. Similar time-dependent formation of these products, in addition to N,N'-disubstituted thiuram disulfides, was demonstrated in CS2-treated BSA by means of 13C-NMR spectroscopy. SDS-PAGE analysis of adducted protein revealed a discrete, higher mobility band, likely representing a specific intramolecular cross-link. In contrast, no evidence for intermolecular protein cross-linking was obtained. Identical results were obtained with cysteinyl-blocked BSA, indicating the lack of formation of N,S-dialkyldithiocarbamate (dithiourethane) cross-links in these preparations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)