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The E2 protein is required for the replication of human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are responsible for anogenital warts and cervical carcinomas. Using an NMR-based screen, we tested compounds for binding to the DNA-binding domain of the HPV-E2 protein. Three classes of compounds were identified which bound to two distinct sites on the protein. Biphenyl and biphenyl ether compounds containing a carboxylic acid bind to a site near the DNA recognition helix and inhibit the binding of E2 to DNA. Benzophenone-containing compounds which lack a carboxylic acid group bind to the beta-barrel formed by the dimer interface and exhibit negligible effects on the binding of E2 to DNA. Structure-activity relationships from the biphenyl and biphenyl ether compounds were combined to produce a compound [5-(3'-(3",5"-dichlorophenoxy)-phenyl)-2,4-pentadienoic acid] with an IC50 value of approximately 10 microM. This compound represents a useful lead for the development of antiviral agents that interfere with HPV replication and further illustrates the usefulness of the SAR by NMR method in the drug discovery process.
Epidemiologic studies have suggested that aromatic amines (and nitroaromatic hydrocarbons) may be carcinogenic for human pancreas. Pancreatic tissues from 29 organ donors (13 smokers, 16 non-smokers) were examined for their ability to metabolize aromatic amines and other carcinogens. Microsomes showed no activity for cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A2-dependent N-oxidation of 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) or for the following activities (and associated P450s): aminopyrine N-demethylation and ethylmorphine N-demethylation (P450 3A4); ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (P450 1A1) and pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (P450 2B6); p-nitrophenol hydroxylation and N-nitrosodimethyl-amine N-demethylation (P450 2E1); lauric acid omega-hydroxylation (P450 4A1); and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanol) (NNAL) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) alpha-oxidation (P450 1A2, 2A6, 2D6). Antibodies were used to examine microsomal levels of P450 1A2, 2A6, 2C8/9/18/19, 2E1, 2D6, and 3A3/4/5/7 and epoxide hydrolase. Immunoblots detected only epoxide hydrolase at low levels; P450 levels were <1% of liver. Microsomal benzidine/prostaglandin hydroperoxidation activity was low. In pancreatic cytosols and microsomes, 4-nitrobiphenyl reductase activities were present at levels comparable to human liver. The O-acetyltransferase activity (AcCoA-dependent DNA-binding of [3H]N-hydroxy-ABP) of pancreatic cytosols was high, about twothirds the levels measured in human colon. Cytosols showed high activity for N-acetylation of p-aminobenzoic acid, but not of sulfamethazine, indicating that acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1) is predominantly expressed in this tissue. Cytosolic sulfotransferase was detected at low levels. Using 32P-post-labeling enhanced by butanol extraction, putative arylamine-DNA adducts were detected in most samples. Moreover, in eight of 29 DNA samples, a major adduct was observed that was chromatographically identical to the predominant ABP-DNA adduct, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-ABP. These results are consistent with a hypothesis that aromatic amines and nitroaromatic hydrocarbons may be involved in the etiology of human pancreatic cancer.
In vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on aldosterone is mediated through the Ang II type 1 receptor. However, it has been difficult to demonstrate an effect of Ang II type 1 receptor blockade on aldosterone levels in human studies. One possible explanation is that subjects have not been studied under salt-controlled conditions. Therefore, we examined the effects of losartan on the aldosterone and renal plasma flow responses to Ang II infusion in six normotensive subjects under low and high salt conditions. Ang II was infused in graded doses (0.3 to 10 ng/kg per minute) in the presence and absence of losartan (a single 50-mg oral dose). Renal plasma flow was assessed by measurement of para-aminohippurate clearance. Blood pressure, plasma aldosterone levels (low salt conditions only), and para-aminohippurate clearance were measured before and after each Ang II dose. Losartan had no effect on baseline systolic pressure but attenuated the systolic pressure response to exogenous Ang II during both low salt (0.7 +/- 1.9 versus 6.7 +/- 1.4 mm Hg, P = .001) and high salt (2.0 +/- 1.9 versus 12.3 +/- 2.1 mm Hg, P = .006) conditions. Under low salt conditions, losartan reduced the baseline plasma aldosterone level from 1135 +/- 204 to 558 +/- 102 pmol/L (P = .015) and blocked the aldosterone response to Ang II (-49 +/- 110 versus +436 +/- 83 pmol/L, P = .019). During high salt conditions, losartan had no effect on baseline renal plasma flow but attenuated the renal plasma flow response to Ang II (-90.1 +/- 15.1 versus -185.1 +/- 2.6 mL/min per 1.73 m2, P = .013). These data confirm that losartan lowers both basal and exogenous Ang II-stimulated aldosterone levels under low salt conditions. Losartan does not significantly affect baseline renal plasma flow but does attenuate the renal plasma flow response to exogenous Ang II under high salt conditions.
The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathogenesis of cisplatin nephrotoxicity was evaluated in an experimental rat model using a specific, nonpeptide angiotensin II(AII) receptor blocker, losartan. Rats were treated with a single dose of losartan (at 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline, 2 h prior to cisplatin administration (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Renal function was assessed 3 and 7 days after cisplatin treatment. A second group of rats received losartan (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline, 2 h prior to cisplatin administration (5 mg/kg, i.p.), and losartan (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline daily for 6 days after cisplatin treatment. Renal function was assessed on day 7. Neither high- nor low-dose losartan pretreatment prevented development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma creatinine values at 7 days were similar to those of animals receiving cisplatin alone (BUN: 17.12 +/- 1.1 and 22.17 +/- 2.2 vs. 20.58 +/- 2.4 mg/dL; creatinine: 1.04 +/- 0.05 and 0.82 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.84 +/- 0.06 mg/dL). A significant reduction in creatinine clearance with cisplatin treatment was seen 3 days after therapy, which was not prevented by pretreatment with losartan (GFR in controls: 2.1 +/- 0.16 mL/min; cisplatin: 0.24 +/- 0.05; cisplatin plus low-dose losartan: 0.05 +/- 0.03 and cisplatin plus high-dose losartan: 0.37 +/- 0.05). All groups of cisplatin-treated rats displayed systemic signs of cisplatin toxicity: reduced food intake and body weight. Rats receiving chronic losartan treatment had more rapid weight gain and lower BUN and plasma creatinine levels on day 7 than rats receiving cisplatin alone (BUN: 24.0 +/- 2.64 vs. 36.4 +/- 0.91 mg/dL; p < 0.05; plasma creatinine: 0.86 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.15 +/- 0.07 mg/dL; p < 0.05). Acute blockade of the AII receptor with losartan does not alter the onset or severity of cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Chronic blockade of the AII receptor may improve the rate of recovery of renal function in cisplatin-treated rats.
The rabbit proximal tubule (PT) has been widely utilized to study the direct effects of angiotensin II (ANG II) on PT function. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the binding properties of PT ANG II receptors, using nonpeptide antagonists, and to clone a rabbit PT ANG II receptor. In rat and rabbit kidney cortical brush-border and basolateral membranes, specific binding of 125I-ANG II was inhibited by the AT1 ANG II-receptor antagonist DuP 753, but not by the AT2 antagonist PD 123319. Using a rabbit kidney cortex cDNA library, we isolated cDNA encoding an ANG II receptor, with an open-reading frame sharing a high degree of sequence homology to previously cloned AT1 ANG II receptors. In transfected COS-1 cells, this rabbit ANG II receptor had properties of the AT1 class. Northern analysis revealed high levels of mRNA expression for this receptor in rabbit kidney cortex and adrenal gland. Within the kidney, message was detected in primary cultures of rabbit PT cells, as well as in freshly isolated rabbit PT segments. Message was also present in cells of the mouse PT line, MCT, and in rat glomerular mesangial cells. Utilizing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers derived from the 1st and 4th transmembrane domains of the rat AT1A ANG II receptor, a 279-bp DNA fragment was amplified from reverse-transcribed RNA from rabbit PT cells. This DNA encoded an amino acid sequence identical to that encoded by the rabbit kidney cDNA clone in the corresponding region and differed by a single base substitution. Southern analysis of rabbit genomic DNA restriction digests with the rabbit ANG II receptor probe revealed hybridization to a single band in each lane. These results indicate that an AT1 ANG II receptor is present in the PT and that a single gene codes for the AT1 receptor in rabbit. The clone isolated in the present study should provide a useful tool with which to study the regulation of the PT renin-angiotensin system.
We sought to examine mechanisms underlying nitroglycerin (NTG) tolerance and "cross-tolerance" to other nitrovasodilators. Rabbits were treated for 3 d with NTG patches (0.4 mg/h) and their aortic segments studied in organ chambers. Relaxations were examined after preconstriction with phenylephrine. In NTG tolerant rabbit aorta, relaxations to cGMP-dependent vasodilators such as NTG (45 +/- 6%), SIN-1 (69 +/- 7%), and acetylcholine (ACh, 64 +/- 5%) were attenuated vs. controls, (90 +/- 2, 94 +/- 3, and 89 +/- 2% respectively, P < 0.05 for all), while responses to the cAMP-dependent vasodilator forskolin remained unchanged. In tolerant aorta, endothelial removal markedly enhanced relaxations to NTG and SIN-1 (82 +/- 4 and 95 +/- 3%, respectively). Other studies were performed to determine how the endothelium enhances tolerance. Vascular steady state .-O2 levels (assessed by lucigenin chemiluminescence) was increased twofold in tolerant vs. control vessels with endothelium (0.31 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.01 nmol/mg per minute). This difference was less in vessels after denudation of the endothelium. Diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of flavoprotein containing oxidases, and Tiron a direct .-O2 scavenger normalized .-O2 levels. In contrast, oxypurinol (1 mM) an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, rotenone (50 microM) an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport and NG-nitro-L-arginine (100 microM) an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase did not affect the chemiluminescence signals from NTG-tolerant aortas. Pretreatment of tolerant aorta with liposome-entrapped, pH sensitive superoxide dismutase (600 U/ml) significantly enhanced maximal relaxation in response to NTG, SIN-1, and ACh, and effectively reduced chemiluminescence signals. These studies show that continuous NTG treatment is associated with increased vascular .-O2-production and consequent inhibition of NO. mediated vasorelaxation produced by both exogenous and endogenous nitrovasodilators.
2-Ethynylnaphthalene (2EN) had previously been demonstrated to be a mechanism-based inactivator of rat cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A2 [Hammons, G.J., Alworth, W.L., Hopkins, N.E., Guengerich, F. P., & Kadlubar, F. F. (1989) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2, 367-374]. In this work 2EN was also demonstrated to be a useful inactivator of rabbit P450 1A2 (k(inactivation) 0.094 min-1, K(i) 11 microM) but it did not inactivate human P450 1A2, although the sequences of the three proteins are approximately 80% identical. Rat and rabbit P450 1A2 were modified by incubation with NADPH-P450 reductase, NADPH, and [3H]2EN to levels of 0.35 and 0.47 nmol of adduct (nmol of P450)-1, respectively. In each case only a single tryptic peptide was labeled; recovery of labeled peptides was low under the acidic HPLC conditions. The rabbit P450 1A2 peptide FQELMAAVGR (positions 175-184) and the rat P450 1A2 peptide L(S)QQYGDVLQIR (positions 67-78) were identified. 4-Azidobiphenyl (4-N3BP) was developed as a photoaffinity label for P-450 1A2 proteins because of its similarity to 4-aminobiphenyl, a known substrate for the enzymes. 4-N3BP was shown to be photolyzed with 350-nm light and radioactive label could be incorporated into rat P450 1A2. Labeling of the protein was found to be saturable with increasing concentrations of 4-N3BP and up to 0.59 nmol of label could be incorporated (nmol P450 1A2)-1. The substrate 4-aminobiphenyl and the competitive inhibitor 7,8-benzoflavone blocked photolabeling of P450 1A2 with 4-N3BP, and 4-N3BP inhibited N-hydroxylation of 4-aminobiphenyl by P450 1A2 in the usual enzyme assay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)