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Two children with a syndrome of pulmonary hemorrhage and necrotizing, nonimmune glomerulonephritis are reported. A boy and girl, both of East Indian descent, developed recurrent lung infiltrates from the age of 3 months and 2 years, respectively. Both subsequently presented with pulmonary hemorrhage, fever, arthritis, hematuria, and nephrotic range proteinuria at 1.5 and 6 years of age, respectively. Renal biopsy in each case showed acute, severe, focal and segmental, necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis without immune deposits. Subsequent renal biopsies revealed severe glomerular and tubulointerstitial scarring. No vasculitis or granulomas were seen on renal, skin, or lung biopsies. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) were not detected in sera taken 1.5 years in the boy and 3.5 years in the girl after the onset of renal disease. The boy was treated with prednisone, azathioprine, and plasmapheresis, but developed progressive renal impairment and commenced dialysis within 4 years. Subsequent to renal transplantation, he developed an immunoblastic lymphoma and died. The girl was treated initially with prednisone and later with cyclophosphamide. After 4 years, she had a normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR). While necrotizing nonimmune glomerulonephritis associated with pulmonary hemorrhage is rare, and cases are characteristically difficult to classify because of many overlapping features, it is possible that these children had a unique illness.
We studied the effect on the progression of glomerular sclerosis of two different experimental maneuvers, peritoneal dialysis and oral adsorbent, which remove circulating substances in different fashions. Munich-Wistar rats with established glomerular sclerosis, verified by renal biopsy analysis at seven weeks after subtotal nephrectomy, were treated for four weeks with either peritoneal dialysis (PD) or oral charcoal adsorbent (AST-120). Treatment was initiated at eight weeks. Rats were paired in treatment and control groups according to the similarity in the degree of sclerosis determined at biopsy with a minimum of 50 glomeruli analyzed. Systolic blood pressure and BUN and creatinine clearance, measured at seven to eight weeks, were not different among groups. In Group 2 rats, PD was performed with 1.5% dextrose for eight one-hour cycles, six days per week, while Group 1 control rats had zero indwelling time of the dialysate. Group 4 rats received AST-120, an oral adsorbent charcoal, mixed 5% by weight with standard rat chow and given ad libitum from 8 to 12 weeks after subtotal nephrectomy, while control Group 3 rats received only rat chow. Whole kidney GFR at 12 weeks was significantly higher in Group 2 PD versus Group 1 control (0.50 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.30 +/- 0.05 ml/min, P less than 0.05). There was no statistical difference for BUN and whole kidney creatinine or inulin clearance in Group 4 AST-120 treated versus Group 3 control rats. Light microscopic studies in autopsy specimens revealed that both PD and AST-120 attenuated progression of glomerular sclerosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Administration of recombinant human growth hormone stimulates protein synthesis, decreases urea generation, and improves nitrogen balance in individuals with normal renal function. However, little information is available concerning the effects of growth hormone in patients with renal disease. This pilot study evaluated urea kinetics and clinical/metabolic responses to short-term growth hormone administration in five clinically stable adult patients requiring maintenance hemodialysis for end-stage renal failure. The dialysis prescription, medications, and oral calorie and protein intake of each patient remained constant during an initial control week and a subsequent 2-wk growth hormone treatment period. During treatment, growth hormone (5 or 10 mg) was administered s.c. immediately after each dialysis session. Protein and calorie intake, vital signs, body weight, and other clinical parameters remained stable throughout the 3-wk study. BUN values fell significantly (approximately 20 to 25%) during growth hormone administration compared with control week values. Similarly, urea kinetic modeling demonstrated a significant reduction in urea generation and the protein catabolic rate during each week of growth hormone treatment. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I levels rose significantly, and serum phosphorus and intact parathyroid hormone levels fell significantly during growth hormone administration. Serum glucose and other blood values remained stable. This preliminary study suggests that growth hormone administration reduces urea generation and improves the efficiency of dietary protein utilization in stable adult hemodialysis patients. Growth hormone may be a useful adjunctive therapy to diminish body protein catabolism in this patient population.
The hematologic response of 65 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients to subcutaneous recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) was compared with that of 369 hemodialysis patients (HD). Pretherapy transfusions were more common in HD than CAPD. The response was measured as the change in hematocrit after 70 or more days of therapy (or as the hematocrit change normalized by a weekly dose) in CAPD patients. The weekly rHuEPO dose did not differ, but the dosing frequency was less in CAPD than in HD patients. Hematologic response parameters were greater in CAPD. Multivariate analysis showed that the response in both groups varied inversely with the frequency of dosing and with pretherapy baseline hematocrit. In HD subjects, the response also varied inversely with previous transfusion history. The authors concluded that CAPD patients responded better to rHuEPO than HD patients. This may be a result, in part, of lower ongoing blood losses. Patients with more severe anemias responded less well, whereas more sensitive patients were dosed less frequently.
Previous studies in experimental models of progressive renal failure have shown that the capacity of antihypertensive drugs to protect glomeruli from sclerosis is often unpredictable from their effect on systemic blood pressure. The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether this systemic blood pressure-independent structure-preserving effect of antihypertensives, particularly angiotensin II converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), is confined to the glomerulus or not, as well as whether this effect is mediated via angiotensin II (Ang II). The following experimental drug regimens were used in the rat model of subtotal nephrectomy (sNPX): so-called triple therapy [TRX; a combination of reserpine 5 mg/liter drinking water (DW), hydralazine 80 mg/liter DW and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg/liter DW], or ACEI (either captopril, CPL, 600 mg/liter DW, enalapril, ENL, 400 mg/liter DW or lisinopril, LSL, 200 mg/liter DW), or a novel Ang II receptor antagonist (Ang IIR, L-158,809, 20 mg/liter DW). These dosages were identified in pilot studies to be the minimum required to control systemic blood pressure in the early phase up to 12 weeks. In addition, a separate group was treated with a higher dose of L-158,809 (80 mg/liter DW) with equipotent systemic pressor effect. Treatment was initiated eight weeks after subtotal nephrectomy following renal biopsy, and animals were sacrificed at 16 weeks. In ACEI treated rats, carotid arterial wall thickening (WT), defined as ratio of media thickening to radius of outer vessel wall, was similar to normal age-matched control (0.073 in all ACEI treated rats, vs. 0.074 in normal control) and significantly less than with TRX (ratio 0.118) or untreated sNPX (0.130). Even more remarkably, coronary arteriole WT in ACEI-treated rats averaged 0.139, a value less than one half and one third of TRX (0.298) and untreated sNPX control (0.388), respectively. Similar results were obtained for mesenteric artery WT. These findings were closely paralleled by changes of glomerular sclerosis. In untreated sNPX control rats, glomerular sclerosis increased from biopsy to autopsy specimens by an average of 458%. Although TRX dampened the degree of increase in sclerosis to on average 212%, this protective effect was far less than that achieved by ACEI. In the latter, sclerosis increased on average only 65% from biopsy to autopsy. Although all ACEIs were more effective than TRX, captopril and lisinopril groups showed greatest benefit at these doses. Ang IIR also protected renal and extrarenal structures with 34% increase of sclerosis index in low dose and WT 0.088, 0.117 and 0.112, respectively in carotid, mesenteric and coronary arteries.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Recombinant hGH (rhGH) augments short-term linear growth in experimental animals and children with chronic renal failure. Significant augmentation of final height, however, requires prolonged growth hormone therapy during years of growth. The effects of prolonged rhGH treatment on linear growth, progression of renal dysfunction, and longevity in the setting of renal insufficiency are unknown. We examined at 9, 15, and 25 wk growth in length and weight, glomerular filtration rate measured by inulin and creatinine clearance, food efficiency (g ingested/weight gained), and survival in treated (U-GH) and untreated (U) 75% nephrectomized uremic rats and in treated (S-GH) and untreated (S) sham-operated rats. We also measured kidney weight to body weight ratios at the time the rats were killed. Treatment was rhGH 1.0 mg s.c. three times a week during wks 4-12 of life. Length of U-GH rats was greater than that of U rats (p less than 0.05) at 15 and 25 wk (but not at 9 wk) and equal to that of S rats throughout the study. Length of S-GH rats exceeded that of S rats. At 9 wk, weight was diminished in both U and U-GH rats (p less than 0.05) versus S and S-GH rats; by 15 wk, U-GH rat weight was equal to S rat weight. Glomerular filtration rate measured by creatinine was markedly reduced in U and U-GH rats and did not increase in response to prolonged rhGH in either U-GH or S-GH rats. Diminished food efficiency of U rats versus S rats (p less than 0.05) was not improved significantly by rhGH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
OBJECTIVE - To determine if the simultaneous initiation of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and Erythropoietin therapy masks the hematocrit (Hct) rise that frequently follows the initiation of CAPD alone.
DESIGN - Single-center retrospective analysis.
SETTING - University multidisciplinary dialysis program.
PATIENTS - All adult CAPD patients with a Hct less than or equal to 28% whose nephrologist felt they would benefit from Erythropoietin therapy and who did not have technical reasons for exclusion (N = 25).
INTERVENTIONS - Eight patients began CAPD and Erythropoietin alfa subcutaneously, at a dose of 128 +/- 9 (X +/- SEM) units/kg/week at the same time. Seventeen patients already on CAPD for 8.7 +/- 1.5 months received Erythropoietin alfa subcutaneously at a dose of 124 +/- 7 units/kg/week. Pre-epoetin Hct's were similar.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - Hematocrit changes, status of iron stores, incidence of peritonitis, and dosage of Erythropoietin.
RESULTS - In 1 month, the group initiating both therapies simultaneously demonstrated a mean Hct rise of 7.6 +/- 0.5% while established CAPD patients receiving Erythropoietin increased their Hct by only 4.7 +/- 1.0% (p less than .03). Iron status could not explain this difference. Peritonitis did not appear to dampen the Hct rise following Erythropoietin in either CAPD group. By 2 months after Erythropoietin, the differences were less apparent.
CONCLUSION - The early rapid increase in Hct is probably the combined effect of CAPD and Erythropoietin and should not be attributed to Erythropoietin alone. When comparing responses to Erythropoietin from patients on different therapies, the timing of dialysis initiation and Erythropoietin initiation must be considered.
Despite technical advances in the delivery of hemodialysis over the past decade, the mortality rate of hemodialysis-dependent, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in the United States remains high. The increase in the number and severity of comorbid conditions of patients entering ESRD is a factor contributing to this high mortality. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that the dose of dialysis received by US patients is inadequate and that this plays a major role in the observed high mortality. In this review, we examine some of the parameters used to judge the adequacy of dialysis, as well as factors that can result in differences between prescribed and delivered dose of hemodialysis. Based on available evidence, we propose that for most patients the optimum dose of dialysis, above which further improvement of morbidity and mortality is doubtful, is represented by a delivered dose of dialysis equivalent to a Kt/V of 1.4 or greater, using biocompatible membranes. The prescription of this optimal dose of dialysis must be coupled with an ongoing effort to monitor delivery of the appropriate dose.
Ultra high frequency (UHF, 10-20 kHz) and conventional audiometric thresholds (0,25-8 kHz) were obtained from 42 stable CAPD patients. Twenty-one (50%) and 11 (25%) of the patients had UHF and conventional hearing loss respectively, when compared to age related control data. This was unrelated to length of chronic renal failure and number of treatments with ototoxic drugs. Sixteen of these patients were monitored audiometrically using UHF during a course of vancomycin therapy for peritonitis. There was no significant change in hearing thresholds. In conclusion there is high incidence of hearing loss in CAPD patients which is unrelated to ototoxic drugs.