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OBJECTIVE - New in vivo mutations in G protein-coupled receptors open opportunities for insights into the mechanism of receptor activation. Here we describe the molecular mechanism of constitutive TSH receptor (TSHR) activation in an Austrian family with three generations of familial nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism.
PATIENTS - The index patient was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism during her first pregnancy. Her first two children were diagnosed with hyperthyroidism at the age of 11 and 10 years, respectively. TSH suppression was also observed in the third child at the age of 8 years, who has normal free T4 levels until now. TSH suppression in infancy was observed in the fourth child. The mother of the index patient was diagnosed with toxic multinodular goiter at the age of 36 years.
METHODS - DNA was extracted from blood samples from the index patient, her mother, and her four children. Screening for TSHR mutations was performed by high-resolution melting assays and subsequent sequencing. Elucidation of the underlying mechanism of TSHR activation was carried out by generation and structural analysis of TSHR transmembrane homology models and verification of model predictions by functional characterization of receptor mutations.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - A newly discovered TSHR mutation L665F in transmembrane helix 7 of the receptor was detected in six members of this family. Functional characterization of L665F revealed constitutive activation for the Gs pathway and thus represents the molecular cause for hyperthyroidism in this family. The constitutive activation is possibly linked to a steric clash introduced by the L665F mutation between transmembrane helices 1 and 7.
Methylglyoxal is a mutagenic bis-electrophile that is produced endogenously from carbohydrate precursors. Methylglyoxal has been reported to induce DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) in vitro and in cultured cells. Previous work suggests that these cross-links are formed between guanine and either lysine or cysteine side chains. However, the chemical nature of the methylglyoxal induced DPC have not been determined. We have examined the reaction of methylglyoxal, deoxyguanosine (dGuo), and Nα-acetyllysine (AcLys) and determined the structure of the cross-link to be the N2-ethyl-1-carboxamide with the lysine side chain amino group (1). The cross-link was identified by mass spectrometry and the structure confirmed by comparison to a synthetic sample. Further, the cross-link between methylglyoxal, dGuo, and a peptide (AcAVAGKAGAR) was also characterized. The mechanism of cross-link formation is likely to involve an Amadori rearrangement.
The unique enhanced sensitivity of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) to the formation and development of amyloid fibrils in solution is extended to four additional fibril-forming proteins or peptides where it is shown that the sign of the fibril VCD pattern correlates with the sense of supramolecular filament chirality and, without exception, to the dominant fibril morphology as observed in AFM or SEM images. Previously for insulin, it has been demonstrated that the sign of the VCD band pattern from filament chirality can be controlled by adjusting the pH of the incubating solution, above pH 2 for "normal" left-hand-helical filaments and below pH 2 for "reversed" right-hand-helical filaments. From AFM or SEM images, left-helical filaments form multifilament braids of left-twisted fibrils while the right-helical filaments form parallel filament rows of fibrils with a flat tape-like morphology, the two major classes of fibril morphology that from deep UV resonance Raman scattering exhibit the same cross-β-core secondary structure. Here we investigate whether fibril supramolecular chirality is the underlying cause of the major morphology differences in all amyloid fibrils by showing that the morphology (twisted versus flat) of fibrils of lysozyme, apo-α-lactalbumin, HET-s (218-289) prion, and a short polypeptide fragment of transthyretin, TTR (105-115), directly correlates to their supramolecular chirality as revealed by VCD. The result is strong evidence that the chiral supramolecular organization of filaments is the principal underlying cause of the morphological heterogeneity of amyloid fibrils. Because fibril morphology is linked to cell toxicity, the chirality of amyloid aggregates should be explored in the widely used in vitro models of amyloid-associated diseases.
Chiral nonracemic cis-4,5-bis(aryl)imidazolines have emerged as a powerful platform for the development of cancer chemotherapeutics, stimulated by the Hoffmann-La Roche discovery that Nutlin-3 can restore apoptosis in cells with wild-type p53. The lack of efficient methods for the enantioselective synthesis of cis-imidazolines, however, has limited their more general use. Our disclosure of the first enantioselective synthesis of (-)-Nutlin-3 provided a basis to prepare larger amounts of this tool used widely in cancer biology. Key to the decagram-scale synthesis described here was the discovery of a novel bis(amidine) organocatalyst that provides high enantioselectivity at warmer reaction temperature (-20 °C) and low catalyst loadings. Further refinements to the procedure led to the synthesis of (-)-Nutlin-3 in a 17 g batch and elimination of all but three chromatographic purifications.
DNA structural perturbations that are induced by site specifically and stereospecifically defined benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) adducts are directly correlated with mutagenesis, leading to cellular transformation. Although previous investigations had established that replication of DNAs containing N(6) -BPDE dA adducts at the second position in the N-ras codon 61(CAA) (61(2) ) resulted exclusively in A to G transitions, NMR analyses not only established the structural basis for this transition mutation but also predicted that if the adduct were positioned at the third position in the same codon, an expanded spectra of mutations was possible. To test this prediction, replication of DNAs containing C10 S-BPDE and C10 R-BPDE lesions linked through the N(6) position of adenine in the sequence context N-ras codon 61, position 3 (C10 S-BPDE and C10 R-BPDE at 61(3) ) was carried out in Escherichia coli, and these data revealed a wide mutation spectrum. In addition to A to G transitions produced by replication of both lesions, replication of the C10 S-BPDE and C10 R-BPDE adducts also yielded A to C and A to T transversions, respectively. Analyses of single nucleotide incorporation using Sequenase 2.0 and exonuclease-deficient E. coli Klenow fragment and pol II not only revealed high fidelity synthesis but also demonstrated the same hierarchy of preference opposite a particular lesion, independent of the sequence context. Primer extension assays with the two lesions at N-ras 61(3) resulted in truncated products, with the C10 S-BPDE adducts being more blocking than C10 R-BPDE lesions, and termination of synthesis was more pronounced at position 61(3) than at 61(2) for each of the lesions.
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Specialized cytochromes P450 or catalase-related hemoproteins transform fatty acid hydroperoxides to allene oxides, highly reactive epoxides leading to cyclopentenones and other products. The stereochemistry of the natural allene oxides is incompletely defined, as are the structural features required for their cyclization. We investigated the transformation of 9S-hydroperoxylinoleic acid with the allene oxide synthase CYP74C3, a reported reaction that unexpectedly produces an allene oxide-derived cyclopentenone. Using biphasic reaction conditions at 0 °C, we isolated the initial products and separated two allene oxide isomers by HPLC at -15 °C. One matched previously described allene oxides in its UV spectrum (λmax 236 nm) and NMR spectrum (defining a 9,10-epoxy-octadec-10,12Z-dienoate). The second was a novel stereoisomer (UV λmax 239 nm) with distinctive NMR chemical shifts. Comparison of NOE interactions of the epoxy proton at C9 in the two allene oxides (and the equivalent NOE experiment in 12,13-epoxy allene oxides) allowed assignment at the isomeric C10 epoxy-ene carbon as Z in the new isomer and the E configuration in all previously characterized allene oxides. The novel 10Z isomer spontaneously formed a cis-cyclopentenone at room temperature in hexane. These results explain the origin of the cyclopentenone, provide insights into the mechanisms of allene oxide cyclization, and define the double bond geometry in naturally occurring allene oxides.
Two bisdihydroanthracenone atropodiastereomeric pairs, including homodimeric flavomannin A (1) and the previously unreported flavomannin B (2), two new unsymmetrical dimers (3 and 4), and two new mixed dihydroanthracenone/anthraquinone dimers (5 and 6) were isolated from Talaromyces wortmannii , an endophyte of Aloe vera . The structures of 2-6 were elucidated by extensive NMR and mass spectrometric analyses. The axial chirality of the biaryls was determined using TDDFT ECD and VCD calculations, the combination of which however did not allow the assignment of the central chirality elements of 1. The compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus , including (multi)drug-resistant clinical isolates. Reporter gene analyses indicated induction of the SOS response for some of the derivatives, suggesting interference with DNA structure or metabolism. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated defective segregation of the bacterial chromosome and DNA degradation. Notably, the compounds showed no cytotoxic activity, encouraging their further evaluation as potential starting points for antibacterial drug development.
We characterize the allylic epoxyalcohols and their trihydroxy hydrolysis products generated from 9R- and 9S-hydroperoxy-octadecenoic acid (HPODE) under non-enzymatic conditions, reaction with hematin and subsequent acid hydrolysis, and enzymatic conditions, incubation with Beta vulgaris containing a hydroperoxide isomerase and epoxide hydrolase. The products were resolved by HPLC and the regio and stereo-chemistry of the transformations were determined through a combination of (1)H NMR and GC-MS analysis of dimethoxypropane derivatives. Four trihydroxy isomers were identified upon mild acid hydrolysis of 9S,10S-trans-epoxy-11E-13S-hydroxyoctadecenoate: 9S,10R,13S, 9S,12R,13S, 9S,10S,13S and 9S,12S,13S-trihydroxy-octadecenoic acids, in the ratio 40:26:22:12. We also identified a prominent δ-ketol rearrangement product from the hydrolysis as mainly the 9-hydroxy-10E-13-oxo isomer. Short incubation (5 min) of 9R- and 9S-HPODE with B. vulgaris extract yielded the 9R- and 9S-hydroxy-10E-12R,13S-cis-epoxy products respectively. Longer incubation (60 min) gave one specific hydrolysis product via epoxide hydrolase, the 9R/S,12S,13S-trihydroxyoctadecenoate. These studies provide a practical approach for the isolation and characterization of allylic epoxy alcohol and trihydroxy products using a combination of HPLC, GC-MS and (1)H NMR.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leukotriene (LT)A₄ and closely related allylic epoxides are pivotal intermediates in lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways to bioactive lipid mediators that include the leukotrienes, lipoxins, eoxins, resolvins, and protectins. Although the structure and stereochemistry of the 5-LOX product LTA₄ is established through comparison to synthetic standards, this is the exception, and none of these highly unstable epoxides has been analyzed in detail from enzymatic synthesis. Understanding of the mechanistic basis of the cis or trans epoxide configuration is also limited. To address these issues, we developed methods involving biphasic reaction conditions for the LOX-catalyzed synthesis of LTA epoxides in quantities sufficient for NMR analysis. As proof of concept, human 15-LOX-1 was shown to convert 15S-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15S-HPETE) to the LTA analog 14S,15S-trans-epoxy-eicosa-5Z,8Z,10E,12E-tetraenoate, confirming the proposed structure of eoxin A₄. Using this methodology we then showed that recombinant Arabidopsis AtLOX1, an arachidonate 5-LOX, converts 5S-HPETE to the trans epoxide LTA₄ and converts 5R-HPETE to the cis epoxide 5-epi-LTA₄, establishing substrate chirality as a determinant of the cis or trans epoxide configuration. The results are reconciled with a mechanism based on a dual role of the LOX nonheme iron in LTA epoxide biosynthesis, providing a rational basis for understanding the stereochemistry of LTA epoxide intermediates in LOX-catalyzed transformations.
The first total synthesis of Aplidiopsamine A, a rare 3H-pyrrolo[2,3-c]quinoline alkaloid from the Aplidiopsis confluata, has been achieved following the proposed biosynthesis. This biomimetic synthesis requires only five steps and proceeds in 20.8% overall yield. Biological evaluation across large panels of discrete molecular targets identified that Aplidiopsamine A is a highly selective PDE4 inhibitor, a target for numerous CNS disorders.