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Between November 1990 and January 1991, status of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was assessed for 522 men and 484 women attending the Comprehensive Health Centre in Kingston, Jamaica, for a new sexually transmitted disease (STD) complaint. Prevalence of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infection was 3.1% (31 of 1,006), a tenfold rise in seroprevalence in 4.5 years. Nineteen of 517 (3.7%) heterosexual men, 3 of 5 (60%) homosexual/bisexual men, and 9 of 484 (1.9%) women were infected with HIV. In heterosexual men, factors associated with HIV infection after age adjustment included present complaint of genital ulcer [odds ratio (OR) 7.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-72], past history of genital ulcer (OR, 4.3; CI, 1.4-12), positive MHATP syphilis serology (OR, 3.4; CI, 1.1-10), sex with a prostitute in the past month (OR, 3.8; CI, 1.1-11). Three or more sex partners in the month prior to complaint (OR, 3.6; CI, 1.0-12), and bruising during sex (OR, 4.0; CI, 1.4-13). On multiple logistic regression analysis, independent associations with HIV infection were shown for bruising during sex (OR, 3.0; CI, 1.1-8.3), positive MHATP syphilis serology (OR, 3.2; CI, 1.1-9.5), and history of genital ulcer (OR, 2.9; CI, 1.0-8.0).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
OBJECTIVES - This study sought to examine risk factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seroconversion among active-duty men in the US Army.
METHODS - One hundred twenty-eight men with documented HIV-1 seroconversion between 1988 and 1991 were matched to control subjects on demographic variables. Risk factor information was collected for the seroconversion period.
RESULTS - Forty-nine case subjects and no control subjects reported same-gender sex; this includes 34 case subjects who also reported sex with women. Seventy case and 118 control subjects reported no risk factors other than heterosexual intercourse. Among heterosexuals, excess risk was noted for men who had sex with women in risk categories defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (odds ratio = 10.0; 95% confidence interval = 1.3, 78.1). Significant trends of increasing risk for seroconversion were found with increasing numbers of female partners, nonsteady partners, and partners with whom sex occurred on the first day of acquaintance.
CONCLUSIONS - In this population, the major risk factor for HIV-1 seroconversion was same-gender sex. Among heterosexuals, sex with anonymous or causal partners increased this risk. Intervention programs should emphasize the risk of indiscriminate partner selection in addition to "safe sex" practices.