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BACKGROUND - Eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage may reduce the risk of MRSA infection and prevent transmission of the organism to other patients.
METHODS - To determine the efficacy of decolonization therapy, patients colonized with MRSA were randomized (3:1 allocation) to receive treatment (2% chlorhexidine gluconate washes and 2% mupirocin ointment intranasally, with oral rifampin and doxycycline for 7 days), or no treatment. Follow-up samples for MRSA culture were obtained from the nares, perineum, skin lesions, and catheter exit sites monthly for up to 8 months. The primary outcome measure was detection of MRSA at 3 months of follow-up. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to identify variables associated with treatment failure.
RESULTS - Of 146 patients enrolled in the study, 112 patients (87 treated; 25 not treated) were followed up for at least 3 months. At 3 months of follow-up, 64 (74%) of those treated had culture results negative for MRSA, compared with 8 (32%) of those not treated (P=.0001). This difference remained significant at 8 months of follow-up, at which time, 54% of those treated had culture results negative for MRSA (chi2=64.4; P<.0001, by log-rank test). The results of the multivariable analysis indicated that having a mupirocin-resistant isolate at baseline was associated with treatment failure (relative risk, 9.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.8-31.9; P=.0003), whereas decolonization therapy was protective (relative risk, 0.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.4; P=.0002). Mupirocin resistance emerged in only 5% of follow-up isolates.
CONCLUSIONS - Treatment with topical mupirocin, chlorhexidine gluconate washes, oral rifampin, and doxycycline for 7 days was safe and effective in eradicating MRSA colonization in hospitalized patients for at least 3 months.
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor significantly involved in the transcriptional regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Interestingly, certain PXR ligands such as rifampin have been shown to readily induce human and rabbit but not rodent members of the cytochrome P450 3A. Because drugs of divergent chemical structures seem to be similarly affected, we hypothesized that specific amino acid residue(s) or domains in rat PXR affect receptor activation by certain human PXR ligands. To identify such a domain(s), an array of human-rat and rat-human chimeric PXR cDNAs in a tandem head-to-tail configuration were created using a random chimeragenesis method. Pharmacological characterization of these chimeras revealed a discreet segment within the ligand-binding domain of rat and human PXR to be essential for the rifampin effect. Within this region, the corresponding residues Leu308 and Phe305 of human and rat PXR, respectively, were found to be important for rifampin activation. Homology modeling derived from the recently determined crystal structure of human PXR indicates that these amino acids are located within or neighboring the flexible loop that forms part of the pore to the ligand-binding cavity. Rifampin, paclitaxel, and hyperforin sensitivity was conferred to rat PXR when Phe305 was converted to leucine, whereas attenuation of sensitivity was observed when Leu308 of human PXR was replaced with phenylalanine. Accordingly, our data provide compelling new insight into the importance of the amino acids comprising the pore to the ligand-binding cavity as a critical modulator of PXR response.
Rifampin, a member of the rifamycin class of antibiotics, is well known for its ability to induce drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, through activation of the pregnane X receptor. Available data suggest rifampin entry into hepatocytes may be transporter-mediated. Accordingly, it is therefore plausible that modulation of the achievable intracellular concentration of rifampin by drug uptake transporters would influence the degree of induction. In this study, we expressed an array of known hepatic uptake transporters to show the key hepatic rifampin uptake transporters are liver-specific members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family (OATP). Indeed, both OATP-C and OATP8 seemed capable of mediating rifampin uptake into HeLa cells. OATP-C, however, seemed to have far greater affinity and capacity for rifampin transport. In addition, several allelic variants of OATP-C known to be present among European and African Americans were found to have markedly decreased rifampin transport activity. In cell-based, transactivation assays, OATP-C expression was associated with increased cellular rifampin retention as well as potentiation of PXR reporter gene activity. This is the first demonstration of an uptake transporter such as OATP-C, in modulating PXR function, and sheds important new insight into our understanding of the molecular determinants of PXR-mediated inductive processes.
PURPOSE - To compare the efficacy and safety of inpatient oral antibiotic treatment (oral) versus standard parenteral antibiotic treatment (intravenous) for right-sided staphylococcal endocarditis in injection drug users.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - In a prospective, randomized, non-blinded trial, febrile injection drug users were assigned to begin oral or intravenous (IV) treatment on admission, before blood culture results were available. Oral therapy consisted of ciprofloxacin and rifampin. Parenteral therapy was oxacillin or vancomycin, plus gentamicin for the first 5 days. Antibiotic dosing was adjusted for renal dysfunction. Administration of other antibacterial drugs was not permitted during the treatment or follow-up periods. Bacteremic subjects having right-sided staphylococcal endocarditis received 28 days of inpatient therapy with the assigned antibiotics. Test-of-cure blood cultures were obtained during inpatient observation 6 and 7 days after the completion of antibiotic therapy, and again at outpatient follow-up 1 month later. Criteria for treatment failure and for drug toxicity were prospectively defined.
RESULTS - Of 573 injection drug users who were hospitalized because of a febrile illness and suspected right-sided staphylococcal endocarditis, 93 subjects (16.2%) had two or more sets of blood cultures positive for staphylococci; 85 of these bacteremic subjects (14.8%) satisfied diagnostic criteria for at least possible right-sided staphylococcal endocarditis (no other source of bacteremia was apparent) and entered the trial. Forty-four (oral, 19; IV, 25) of these 85 subjects completed inpatient treatment and evaluation including test-of-cure blood cultures. There were four treatment failures (oral, 1 [5.2%]; IV, 3 [12.0%]; not significant, Fisher's exact test). Drug toxicity was significantly more common in the parenterally treated group (oral, 3%; IV, 62%; P < 0.0001), consisting largely of oxacillin-associated increases in liver enzymes.
CONCLUSIONS - For selected patients with right-sided staphylococcal endocarditis, oral ciprofloxacin plus rifampin is effective and is associated with less drug toxicity than is intravenous therapy.