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Although the study of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) in early childhood has received considerable attention, there is emerging interest in RAD that presents in school age children and adolescents. We examined the course of RAD signs from early childhood to early adolescence using both variable-centered (linear mixed modeling) and person-centered (growth mixture modeling) approaches. One-hundred twenty-four children with a history of institutional care from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of foster care as an alternative to institutional care, as well as 69 community comparison children were included in the study. While foster care was associated with steep reductions in RAD signs across development, person-centered approaches indicated that later age of placement into families and greater percent time in institutional care were each associated with prolonged elevated RAD signs. Findings suggest the course of RAD is variable but substantially influenced by early experiences.
The completion of the Human Genome Project has unleashed a wealth of human genomics information, but it remains unclear how best to implement this information for the benefit of patients. The standard approach of biomedical research, with researchers pursuing advances in knowledge in the laboratory and, separately, clinicians translating research findings into the clinic as much as decades later, will need to give way to new interdisciplinary models for research in genomic medicine. These models should include scientists and clinicians actively working as teams to study patients and populations recruited in clinical settings and communities to make genomics discoveries-through the combined efforts of data scientists, clinical researchers, epidemiologists, and basic scientists-and to rapidly apply these discoveries in the clinic for the prediction, prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. The highly publicized US Precision Medicine Initiative, also known as All of Us, is a large-scale program funded by the US National Institutes of Health that will energize these efforts, but several ongoing studies such as the UK Biobank Initiative; the Million Veteran Program; the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network; the Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health; and the DiscovEHR collaboration are already providing exemplary models of this kind of interdisciplinary work. In this statement, we outline the opportunities and challenges in broadly implementing new interdisciplinary models in academic medical centers and community settings and bringing the promise of genomics to fruition.
© 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.
INTRODUCTION - Idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS) is an unexplained progressive obstruction of the upper airway that occurs almost exclusively in adult, Caucasian women. The disease is characterised by mucosal inflammation and localised fibrosis resulting in life-threatening blockage of the upper airway. Because of high recurrence rates, patients with iSGS will frequently require multiple procedures following their initial diagnosis. Both the disease and its therapies profoundly affect patients' ability to breathe, communicate and swallow. A variety of treatments have been advanced to manage this condition. However, comparative data on effectiveness and side effects of the unique approaches have never been systematically evaluated. This study will create an international, multi-institutional prospective cohort of patients with iSGS. It will compare three surgical approaches to determine how well the most commonly used treatments in iSGS 'work' and what quality of life (QOL) trade-offs are associated with each approach.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS - A prospective pragmatic trial comparing the 'Standard of Care' for iSGS at multiple international institutions. Patients with a diagnosis of iSGS without clinical or laboratory evidence of vasculitis or a history of endotracheal intubation 2 years prior to symptom onset will be included in the study. Prospective evaluation of disease recurrence requiring operative intervention, validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures as well as patient-generated health data (mobile peak flow recordings and daily steps taken) will be longitudinally tracked for 36 months. The primary endpoint is treatment effectiveness defined as time to recurrent operative procedure. Secondary endpoints relate to treatment side effects and include PRO measures in voice, swallowing, breathing and global QOL as well as patient-generated health data.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION - This protocol was approved by the local IRB Committee of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center in July 2015. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and directly to patient with iSGS via social media-based support groups.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER - NCT02481817.
© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
PURPOSE - Academic scientists work in competitive environments, and many institutions invest in career development supports. These investments may be imperiled when extraprofessional demands challenge a faculty member's reserve capacity. This research assessed prevalence of caregiving challenges and estimated incidence of stressful life events.
METHOD - In 2015-2016, the authors surveyed recipients of career development awards supporting ≥ 75% effort and individuals within the funding period of their first National Institutes of Health R01 or equivalent at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Domains included family structure, hospitalizations of family members, responsibility for coordination of caregiving, and an inventory of stressful life events.
RESULTS - Seventy-two percent (152 of 210) of early career researchers responded. Over half endorsed experiencing one or more substantial caregiving challenges in the prior year. This included 35 (23%) having a child or adult in the household hospitalized in the prior year and 36 (24%) being responsible for health care needs for a child or adult in the household, or for coordinating elder care, assisted living, or hospice care. The majority experienced one or more caregiving challenges. Stressful life events increased relative risk of "thinking about leaving academics" by 70% (risk ratio: 1.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 2.4). Prevalence and incidence of caregiving demands did not differ by gender.
CONCLUSIONS - Leaders, administrators, mentors, and faculty should anticipate that most women and men early career researchers will experience substantial caregiving challenges and life events in any given year. Sufficient need exists to warrant investigation of institutional programs to address caregiving challenges.
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES - The percentage of clinical scientists in radiology has historically been low. Increasing the pipeline of trainees interested in research could occur by recruiting MD-PhD trainees and providing protected research time during residency. The purpose of this work is to assess the attitudes of radiology program directors toward MD-PhD trainees, resident research productivity, and dedicated research time.
METHODS - An online survey was sent to residency program directors of all diagnostic radiology departments that received National Institutes of Health (NIH) awards in 2014 (n = 63). Survey questions included program size; perception of overall performance, clinical performance, and research productivity of MD-PhD residents compared to non-PhD residents; and presence of dedicated research time. Responses comparing MD-PhD residents to non-PhD residents were reported as a five-point Likert scale. Student t test was used to assess for significance (alpha = 0.05).
RESULTS - Response rate was 37%. Clinical performance of MD-PhD residents was judged inferior (P < .05) to non-PhD residents, although that of all residents engaged in research trended toward superiority compared to those not involved in research. Dedicated research time is offered by 61% of programs in years R1-R3 and all programs in year R4. Research productivity during residency was judged to be similar (P = .5) between MD-PhD and non-PhD residents.
CONCLUSIONS - Survey results suggest that clinical performance during residency and research involvement is often individually based and difficult to generalize based on prior PhD training. All programs offered dedicated research time, and the vast majority of residents were reported to engage in research during residency, which may increase the pipeline of trainees interested in an academic career.
Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
AKI is a complex clinical condition associated with high mortality, morbidity, and health care costs. Despite improvements in methodology and design of clinical trials, and advances in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of rodent AKI, no pharmacologic agent exists for the prevention or treatment of AKI in humans. To address the barriers that affect successful clinical translation of drug targets identified and validated in preclinical animal models of AKI in this patient population, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases convened the "AKI Outcomes: Overcoming Barriers in AKI" workshop on February 10-12, 2015. The workshop used a reverse translational medicine approach to identify steps necessary to achieve clinical success. During the workshop, breakout groups were charged first to design feasible, phase 2, proof-of-concept clinical trials for delayed transplant graft function, prevention of AKI (primary prevention), and treatment of AKI (secondary prevention and recovery). Breakout groups then were responsible for identification of preclinical animal models that would replicate the pathophysiology of the phase 2 proof-of-concept patient population, including primary and secondary end points. Breakout groups identified considerable gaps in knowledge regarding human AKI, our understanding of the pathophysiology of AKI in preclinical animal models, and the fidelity of cellular and molecular targets that have been evaluated preclinically to provide information regarding human AKI of various etiologies. The workshop concluded with attendees defining a new path forward to a better understanding of the etiology, pathology, and pathophysiology of human AKI.
Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.