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RATIONALE - Recent clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated that systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, unlike in the general population, little is known regarding the efficacy of atheroprotective interventions in patients with SLE. The current study aims to determine the benefit of lymphocyte inhibition on reducing the atherosclerotic burden in SLE-susceptible LDLr-deficient mice.
METHODS - Female LDLr(-/-) mice were lethally irradiated and reconstituted with bone marrow from C57Bl/6 mice (LDLr.B6) or the SLE-susceptible B6.Sle1.2.3 mice (LDLr.Sle). At 16 weeks post transplant, mice were treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/kg), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF; 40 mg/kg), or both (MMF-A) for 8 weeks, after which the extent of atherosclerosis and the presence of SLE were assessed.
RESULTS - Following 8 weeks of treatment, we observed that atorvastatin-mediated reduction in cholesterol levels attenuated atherogenesis in LDLr.B6 mice but failed to significantly reduce atherosclerotic lesion size in LDLr.Sle mice, in spite of a significant reduction in serum cholesterol levels. Treatment with MMF and MMF-A attenuated atherogenesis in LDLr.B6 and LDLr.Sle mice. In addition, MMF-containing regimens inhibited recruitment of CD4+ T cells to atherosclerotic lesions in LDLr.Sle mice. In these mice, MMF also reduced the proportion of activated splenic T cells, as well as interleukin 10 secretion by T cells. With regard to lupus activity, MMF had no overt effect on anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody titres or kidney function and pathology.
CONCLUSIONS - The current study demonstrates that reduction of cholesterol levels alone is not atheroprotective in lupus-mediated atherogenesis. This is the first study to demonstrate that MMF reduces the atherosclerotic burden in a model of lupus-accelerated atherosclerosis. Our results suggest that MMF treatment may prove beneficial in preventing CVD in patients with SLE.
PURPOSE - Sunitinib is a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and GI stromal tumor. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is an important adverse effect that has been reported with sunitinib, but overall incidence and relative risk (RR) remain undefined. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis to determine the risk of developing CHF in patients with both RCC and non-RCC tumors treated with sunitinib.
METHODS - Medline databases were searched for articles published between January 1966 and February 2011. Eligible studies were limited to phase II and III trials of sunitinib with adequate safety reporting in patients with cancer of any tumor type. Summary incidence, RR, and 95% CIs were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models based on the heterogeneity of included studies.
RESULTS - A total of 6,935 patients were included. Overall incidence for all- and high-grade CHF in sunitinib-treated patients was 4.1% (95% CI, 1.5% to 10.6%) and 1.5% (95% CI, 0.8% to 3.0%), respectively. RR of all- and high-grade CHF in sunitinib-treated patients compared with placebo-treated patients was 1.81 (95% CI, 1.30 to 2.50; P < .001) and 3.30 (95% CI, 1.29 to 8.45; P = .01), respectively. On subgroup analysis, there was no difference observed in CHF incidence for patients with RCC versus non-RCC or in trials with or without cardiac monitoring. No evidence of publication bias was observed.
CONCLUSION - Sunitinib use is associated with increased risk of CHF in patients with cancer.
The homeobox gene Noto is expressed in the node and its derivative the notochord. Here we use a targeted Noto-GFP reporter to isolate and characterize node/notochord-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. We find very few Noto-expressing cells after spontaneous differentiation. However, the number of Noto-expressing cells was increased when using Activin A to induce a Foxa2- and Brachyury-expressing progenitor population, whose further differentiation into Noto-expressing cells was improved by simultaneous inhibition of BMP, Wnt, and retinoic acid signaling. Noto-GFP(+) cells expressed the node/notochord markers Noto, Foxa2, Shh, Noggin, Chordin, Foxj1, and Brachyury; showed a vacuolarization characteristic of notochord cells; and can integrate into midline structures when grafted into Hensen's node of gastrulating chicken embryos. The ability to generate node/notochord-like cells in vitro will aid the biochemical characterization of these developmentally important structures.
PURPOSE - This phase I study assessed the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of SJG-136, a sequence-specific DNA cross-linking agent, in patients with advanced cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN - In schedule A, seven patients received escalating doses of SJG-136 (6, 12, 24, and 48 μg/m(2)) daily for 5 of 21 days. Blood samples were collected for PK analysis on days 1 and 5 of cycle 1. In schedule B, SJG-136 was given daily for 3 of 21 days (N = 17; doses 20, 25, 30, and 35 μg/m(2)). Blood samples were collected on days 1 and 3 of cycles 1 and 2 for PK and PD analysis. Patients in schedule B received dexamethasone and early diuretic care.
RESULTS - Schedule A-dose-limiting toxicities included grade 3 edema, dyspnea, fatigue, and delayed liver toxicity (grade 3-4). PK analysis revealed dose-dependent increases in AUC and C(max). Substantial changes in volume of distribution at steady-state occurred after repeated dosing in some patients prior to the onset of edema. Schedule B-the same toxicities were manageable with steroid premedication and diuretic support. No significant myelosuppression occurred on either schedule. DNA interstrand cross-links correlated with systemic exposure of SJG-136 following the second dose in cycle 1 and were still detectable immediately before cycle 2.
CONCLUSIONS - The MTD of SJG-136 in this study was 30 μg/m(2) administered on a daily 3× basis with no myelosuppression effects. Coupled with supportive management, SJG-136 is now advancing to a phase II trial in ovarian cancer.
OBJECTIVE - The uptake carrier organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3, gene SLCO1B3) is involved in the hepatic clearance of xenobiotics including statins, taxanes, and mycophenolic acid. We thought to assess the SLCO1B3 coding region for yet unidentified polymorphisms and to analyze their functional relevance.
METHODS - We used DNA of ethnically diverse individuals for polymerase chain reaction, and determined polymorphisms by sequencing or temperature-dependent capillary electrophoresis. We then created variant OATP1B3 expression plasmids by site-directed mutagenesis, which were transiently expressed and functionally characterized in human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells using radiolabeled substrates.
RESULTS - We identified six nonsynonymous polymorphisms including novel variants such as 439A>G (Thr147Ala), 767G>C (Gly256Ala), 1559A>C (His520Pro), and 1679T>C (Val560Ala). Allelic frequencies occurred to be ethnicity-dependent, with the latter observed only in African-Americans (3.6%). After expression in HeLa cells, His520Pro, Val560Ala, and Met233Ile or Met233Ile_Ser112Ala haplotype variants showed decreased uptake activity compared with wild type for cholecystokinin-8 and rosuvastatin, but not for atorvastatin. Kinetic cholecystokinin-8 analysis showed reduced Vmax without altering Km. His520Pro and Val560Ala exhibited decreased total and plasma membrane protein expressions. Val560 mapped onto a structural model of OATP1B3 showed that this is a key region for substrate-transporter interaction. His520 resides in a predicted extracellular region thought to be critical to the pH-dependent component of OATP1B3 activity. Loss of activity at pH 7.4 and 8.0 relative to pH 6.5 was significantly greater for the Pro520 variant.
CONCLUSION - OATP1B3 polymorphisms that result in altered expression, substrate specificity, and pH-dependent activity may be of potential relevance to hepatic clearance of substrate drugs in vivo.
A new synthetic route to pyrrolopyridinol antioxidants from easily accessible pyridoxine was developed which includes phase-transfer catalytic alkylation and intramolecular Cu(I)-catalyzed amination as key steps.
Over the past decade, large multicenter trials have unequivocally demonstrated that decreasing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol can reduce both primary and secondary cardiovascular events in patients at risk. However, even in the context of maximal LDL lowering, there remains considerable residual cardiovascular risk. Some of this risk can be attributed to variability in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. As such, there is tremendous interest in defining determinants of HDL homeostasis. Risk prediction models are being constructed based upon (1) clinical contributors, (2) known molecular determinants and (3) the genetic architecture underlying HDL cholesterol levels. To date, however, no single resource has combined these factors within the context of a practice-based data set. Recently, a number of academic medical centers have begun constructing DNA biobanks linked to secure encrypted versions of their respective electronic medical record. As these biobanks combine resources, the clinical community is in a position to characterize lipid-related treatment outcome on an unprecedented scale.
BIIB 513 and EMD 85131 are selective inhibitors of the Na+/H+ exchanger-1 (NHE-1) that are benzoylguanidine derivatives of the clinically employed diuretic amiloride. Prior studies have suggested a role for NHE-1 activity in platelet activation and aggregation using amiloride or its non- benzoylguanidines derivatives. However, the concentrations employed in these prior studies were at levels known to exert effects on other ion transport systems besides the NHE-1. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of more selective NHE-1 inhibitors, BIIB 513 and EMD 85131, on platelet aggregation and in vivo cyclic flow following arterial injury. BIIB 513 and EMD 85131 effects on ex vivo canine and human platelet aggregation in response to various agents was monitored via platelet aggregation. For analysis of in vivo thrombus formation, a femoral artery crush injury model was employed and a flow meter was used to monitor the effect of BIIB 513 on cyclic blood flow. Treatment of either canine or human platelets with up to 1 mM of BIIB 513 had no effect on aggregation induced by platelet activating factor (PAF), thrombin receptor activator peptide (TRAP), or adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Additionally, the structurally related compound EMD 85131 at up to 1 mM failed to inhibit TRAP induced platelet aggregation. In vivo administration of up to 9 mg/kg of BIIB 513 intravenously failed to affect cyclic flow in a canine model of femoral artery injury. These data demonstrate that the specific and selective NHE-1 inhibitors BIIB 513 or EMD 85131 have no effect on ex vivo platelet aggregation or in vivo cyclic flow following arterial injury.
BACKGROUND - Apricoxib, a novel once-daily selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, was investigated in combination with erlotinib for recurrent stage IIIB/IV nonsmall cell lung cancer to determine the maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicity, and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) based on changes in urinary prostaglandin E₂ metabolite (PGE-M).
METHODS - Patients received escalating doses of apricoxib (100, 200, and 400 mg/day) in combination with erlotinib 150 mg/day until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Urinary PGE-M was used to assess biologic activity and inform the optimal biologic dose.
RESULTS - Twenty patients were treated (3 at 100 mg; 3 at 200 mg; 14 at 400 mg apricoxib) with a median of 4 cycles (range, 2-14 cycles); 8 patients (40%) received prior EGFR-directed therapies. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed. Study drug-related adverse events (AEs) included diarrhea, rash, dry skin, anemia, fatigue, and increased serum creatinine; 4 patients had grade ≥ 3 drug-related AEs (diarrhea, perforated duodenal ulcer, hypophosphatemia, and deep vein thrombosis). The RP2D was 400 mg/day based on safety, biologic activity based on decreases in urinary PGE-M, and pharmacokinetics. One patient had a partial response, and 11 had stable disease. Stable disease was observed in patients who had received prior EGFR inhibitor therapy but was greater in patients not previously treated with an EGFR inhibitor. Seventeen patients had elevated urinary PGE-M at baseline, and 14 (70%) had a decrease from baseline, which was associated with disease control.
CONCLUSIONS - Apricoxib plus erlotinib was well tolerated and yielded a 60% disease control rate. A phase II trial is currently investigating 400 mg/day apricoxib plus 150 mg/day erlotinib in patients selected based on change in urinary PGE-M.
Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.