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These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on nutrition and supportive care for patients with head and neck cancers. This topic was a recent addition to the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Head and Neck Cancers. The NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on major updates to the NCCN Guidelines and discuss the new updates in greater detail. The complete version of the NCCN Guidelines for Head and Neck Cancers is available on the NCCN Web site (NCCN.org).
BACKGROUND - Obesity, the largest epidemic of modern time, carries a markedly increased risk of type-2 diabetes, cancer, fatty liver, sleep apnea, hypertension, dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In addition, obesity increases the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). There are limited data regarding the basic knowledge of nephrologists on how to assess and manage obesity in the setting of CKD.
METHODS - To learn more about practice patterns among nephrologists, a survey on obesity was published online in NDT-Educational between 8 November 2012 and 31 January 2013. Three-hundred and ninety-nine responses were received mostly from nephrologists in Europe (57%), South and Central America (12%) and the Middle East (10%). The majority practiced in clinical nephrology (64%) and outpatient dialysis clinics (23%). Whereas 54% of the participants worked in hospitals, 31% worked in academic centers.
RESULTS - Most participants stated that the number of obese patients has increased both among their CKD stage 2-5 patients and in their dialysis clinics during the last 10 years. For routine estimation of body fat content in the dialysis clinic, the majority of nephrologists (43%) still rely on the body mass index (BMI). A majority (72%) does not think that weight gain should be promoted in dialysis patients with a BMI of <35 kg/m(2). The survey also showed that 30% of the responders did not have any predetermined cut-off level for BMI. However, 29% used a cut-off level of 35 kg/m(2) and 27% used a cut-off level of 30 kg/m(2) for approval for kidney transplantation in their clinics.
CONCLUSIONS - The level of understanding of the intricacies of obesity in the setting of CKD needs improvement among nephrologists. Similarly, there is no consensus regarding weight management strategies in CKD patients with obesity. Studies are needed in this orphan area of renal research.
PURPOSE - Catheters are associated with worse clinical outcomes than fistulas and grafts in hemodialysis (HD) patients. One potential modifier of patient vascular access (VA) use is patient preference for a particular VA type. The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of patient VA preference that could be used to improve patient care.
METHODS - This study uses a cross-sectional sample of data from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS 3, 2005-09), that includes 3815 HD patients from 224 facilities in 12 countries. Using multivariable models we measured associations between patient demographic and clinical characteristics, previous catheter use and patient preference for a catheter.
RESULTS - Patient preference for a catheter varied across countries, ranging from 1% of HD patients in Japan and 18% in the United States, to 42% to 44% in Belgium and Canada. Preference for a catheter was positively associated with age (adjusted odds ratio per 10 years=1.14; 95% CI=1.02-1.26), female sex (OR 1.49; 95% CI=1.15-1.93), and former (OR=2.61; 95% CI=1.66-4.12) or current catheter use (OR=60.3; 95% CI=36.5-99.8); catheter preference was inversely associated with time on dialysis (OR per three years=0.90; 95% CI=0.82-0.97).
CONCLUSIONS - Considerable variation in patient VA preference was observed across countries, suggesting that patient VA preference may be influenced by sociocultural factors and thus could be modifiable. Catheter preference was greatest among current and former catheter users, suggesting that one way to influence patient VA preference may be to avoid catheter use whenever possible.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - Patterns of end-of-life care among patients with ESRD differ by race. Whether the magnitude of racial differences in end-of-life care varies across regions is not known.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS - This observational cohort study used data from the US Renal Data System and regional health care spending patterns from the Dartmouth Atlas of Healthcare. The cohort included 101,331 black and white patients 18 years and older who initiated chronic dialysis or received a kidney transplant between June 1, 2005, and September 31, 2008, and died before October 1, 2009. Black-white differences in the odds of in-hospital death, dialysis discontinuation, and hospice referral by quintile of end-of-life expenditure index (EOL-EI) were examined.
RESULTS - In adjusted analyses, the odds ratios for dialysis discontinuation for black versus white patients ranged from 0.47 (95% confidence interval=0.43 to 0.51) in the highest quintile of EOL-EI to 0.63 (95% confidence interval=0.54 to 0.74) in the lowest quintile (P for interaction<0.001). Hospice referral ranged from 0.55 (95% confidence interval=0.50 to 0.60) in the highest quintile of EOL-EI to 0.82 (95% confidence interval=0.69 to 0.96) in the lowest quintile (P for interaction<0.001). The association of race with in-hospital death also differed in magnitude across quintiles of EOL-EI, ranging from 1.21 (95% confidence interval=1.08 to 1.35) in the highest quintile of EOL-EI to 1.47 (95% confidence interval=1.27 to 1.71) in the second quintile (P for interaction<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS - There are pronounced black-white differences in patterns of hospice referral and dialysis discontinuation among patients with ESRD that vary substantially across regions of the United States.
STUDY OBJECTIVE - We determine whether emergency provider attitudes and demographics are associated with adherence to national guidelines for the management of acute sickle cell disease pain.
METHODS - We conducted a cross-sectional survey of emergency providers at the 2011 annual American College of Emergency Physicians Scientific Assembly, using a validated instrument to assess provider attitudes and self-reported analgesic practices toward patients with sickle cell disease. Multivariable, relative risk regressions were used to identify factors associated with adherence to guidelines.
RESULTS - There were 722 eligible participants, with a 93% complete response rate. Most providers self-reported adherence to the cornerstones of sickle cell disease pain management, including parenteral opioids (90%) and redosing opioids within 30 minutes if analgesia is inadequate (85%). Self-reported adherence was lower for other recommendations, including use of patient-controlled analgesia, acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hypotonic fluids for euvolemic patients. Emergency providers in the highest quartile of negative attitudes were 20% less likely to redose opioids within 30 minutes for inadequate analgesia (risk ratio 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7 to 0.9). High-volume providers (those who treat more than 1 sickle cell disease patient per week), were less likely to redose opioids within 30 minutes for inadequate analgesia (risk ratio 0.9; 95% CI 0.8 to 0.9). Pediatric providers were 6.6 times more likely to use patient-controlled analgesia for analgesia (95% CI 2.6 to 16.6).
CONCLUSION - The majority of emergency providers report that they adhere to national guidelines about use of opioids for sickle cell disease-related acute pain episodes. Other recommendations have less penetration. Negative attitudes toward individuals with sickle cell disease are associated with lower adherence to guidelines.
Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - An optimal prostate biopsy in clinical practice is based on a balance among adequate detection of clinically significant prostate cancers (sensitivity), assuredness regarding the accuracy of negative sampling (negative predictive value), limited detection of clinically insignificant cancers and good concordance with whole gland surgical pathology results to allow accurate risk stratification and disease localization for treatment selection. Inherent within this optimization is variation of the core number, location, labeling and processing for pathological evaluation. To date, there is no consensus in this regard. The purpose of this review is to 1) define the optimal number and location of biopsy cores during primary prostate biopsy among men with suspected prostate cancer, 2) define the optimal method of labeling prostate biopsy cores for pathological processing which will provide relevant and necessary clinical information for all potential clinical scenarios, and 3) determine the maximal number of prostate biopsy cores allowable within a specimen jar which would not preclude accurate histological evaluation of the tissue.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - A bibliographic search using PubMed® covering the period up to July 2012 yielded approximately 550 articles. Articles were reviewed and categorized based on which of the 3 objectives of this review was addressed. Data were extracted, analyzed and summarized. Recommendations are provided based on this literature review and our clinical experience.
RESULTS - The use of 10 to 12-core extended sampling protocols increases cancer detection rates compared to traditional sextant sampling methods and reduces the likelihood of repeat biopsy by increasing negative predictive value, ultimately allowing more accurate risk stratification without increasing the likelihood of detecting insignificant cancers. As the number of cores increases above 12, the increase in diagnostic yield becomes marginal. Only limited evidence supports the use of initial biopsy schemes involving more than 12 cores or saturation. Apical and laterally directed sampling of the peripheral zone increases cancer detection rate, reduces the need for repeat biopsies and predicts pathological features on prostatectomy while transition zone biopsies do not. There are little data to suggest that knowing the exact site of an individual positive biopsy core provides meaningful clinical information. However, determining laterality of cancer on biopsy may be helpful for predicting sites of extracapsular extension and therapeutic planning. Placement of multiple biopsy cores in a single container (greater than 2) appears to compromise pathological evaluation, which can reduce cancer detection rate and increase the likelihood of equivocal diagnoses.
CONCLUSIONS - A 12-core systematic biopsy that incorporates apical and far-lateral cores in the template distribution allows maximal cancer detection, avoids repeat biopsy, and provides information adequate for identifying men who need therapy and planning that therapy while minimizing the detection of occult, indolent prostate cancers. This literature review does not provide compelling evidence that individual site specific labeling of cores benefits clinical decision making regarding the management of prostate cancer. Based on the available literature, we recommend packaging no more than 2 cores in each jar to avoid reduction of the cancer detection rate through inadequate tissue sampling.
Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - Due to the paucity of data on urodynamics on the national level, we assessed the use of urodynamics in a large sample of individuals in the United States and identified predictors of increased complexity of urodynamic procedures.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Using administrative health care claims for adults enrolled in private insurance plans in the United States from 2002 to 2007, we identified those who underwent cystometrogram and abstracted relevant demographic and clinical data. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of higher urodynamic complexity over basic cystometrogram, specifically cystometrogram plus pressure flow study and videourodynamics.
RESULTS - We identified 16,574 urodynamic studies, of which 23% were cystometrograms, 71% were cystometrograms plus pressure flow studies and 6% were videourodynamics. Stress incontinence was the most common clinical condition for all studies (33.7%), cystometrogram (30.8%), cystometrogram plus pressure flow study (35.4%) and videourodynamics (24.4%). Urologists performed 59.8% of all urodynamics and gynecologists performed 35.5%. Providers with 14 or more urodynamic studies during the study period performed 75% of all urodynamics and were more likely to perform cystometrogram plus pressure flow study and videourodynamics. On regression analysis the most consistent predictors of cystometrogram plus pressure flow study and/or videourodynamics over cystometrogram were specialty (urologist) and the number of urodynamic tests performed by the provider.
CONCLUSIONS - Most urodynamics in this series consisted of cystometrogram plus pressure flow study with stress incontinence the most common diagnosis. However, regardless of diagnosis, urologists and providers who performed more urodynamics were more likely to perform pressure flow study and/or videourodynamics in addition to cystometrogram. Further research is needed to determine whether these differences reflect gaps in the consistency or appropriateness of using urodynamics.
Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - Observation off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis is an option for vesicoureteral reflux. We evaluated the characteristics of patients observed off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis and risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - We identified children 1 to 18 years old with primary vesicoureteral reflux between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2010. We excluded patients with prior surgical correction from analysis. We recorded age, gender, race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance carrier, age at vesicoureteral reflux diagnosis, initial presentation and vesicoureteral reflux severity. We quantified bladder and bowel dysfunction with a validated questionnaire if toilet trained. We compared patients off vs on continuous antibiotic prophylaxis with the chi-square test for categorical variables and the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables. We used a univariate Cox proportional hazards model to assess predictors of febrile urinary tract infection during observation off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis.
RESULTS - Of 529 eligible patients 224 were observed off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. Patients off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis tended to be older (p <0.001), to be older at diagnosis (p <0.001), to have an initial presentation other than febrile urinary tract infection (p = 0.05), to have nondilating vesicoureteral reflux on most recent cystogram (p <0.001) and to have lower bladder/bowel dysfunction scores if toilet trained (p <0.001). Of the patients off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis a febrile urinary tract infection developed in 19 (8.5%). Risk factors associated with febrile urinary tract infection included initial presentation of multiple febrile urinary tract infections (p = 0.03), older age at diagnosis (p = 0.03) and older age starting observation off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (p = 0.0003).
CONCLUSIONS - Criteria to select patients with vesicoureteral reflux for observation off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis remain poorly defined in the literature. Observation will fail in a subset of patients with vesicoureteral reflux. Physician biases regarding patient selection for observation off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered when interpreting studies that evaluate treatment strategies.
Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.