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INTRODUCTION - The direction of the relationship between psychological adjustment and erectile dysfunction (ED) is unclear and may differ for different men, and few studies have examined psychological outcomes for men receiving ED treatment.
AIM - This study assessed the impact of ED therapy at baseline and 12-month follow-up, using standard psychological measures.
METHODS - Using an observational ED registry, we collected clinical and psychosocial data at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months. Participants had (i) a patient-reported outcomes questionnaire at baseline and at least one follow-up; and (ii) data about ED treatments received during the study. Treated men were classified as responders based on improvements in International Index of Erectile Function scores from baseline to 12 months.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - The main outcome measures were changes in psychological outcomes in relation to treatment status and baseline ED severity.
RESULTS - Of 153 patients, 40 responded to treatment, 49 did not respond to treatment, and 64 did not receive treatment. Treatment responders reported significant improvements in 12-month sexual self-efficacy but only small improvements or no change across five other psychological domains, whereas nonresponders reported small decrements. There was a trend for differences in sexual self-efficacy to vary by baseline ED severity, as well as by treatment response.
CONCLUSIONS - Diagnosing and successfully treating ED significantly affects patient psychological adjustment, so providers should actively diagnose and treat ED.
INTRODUCTION - Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with psychological impairment, and further research is required to understand their relationship.
AIM - We present descriptive baseline results from a longitudinal observational study of North American men seeking treatment for ED.
METHODS - Patients completed clinical and health-related quality-of-life information at baseline and three follow-up points over 12 months; 162 patients had usable baseline data, including clinical history and current status, sociodemographic information, and standard paper-and-pencil scales of psychosocial characteristics. Scores on the International Index of Erectile Functioning erectile functioning subscale were collapsed into mild (N = 27), moderate (N = 41), or severe (N = 94) categories. Using chi-square, anova, and logistic regression, we identified baseline characteristics associated with ED severity.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE - The main outcome measure was the degree of psychosocial impairment associated with mild, moderate, and severe ED.
RESULTS - Severe ED was significantly associated with not having a regular sex partner; a history of prostate cancer; and worse scores on measures of positive affect, belonging/loneliness, sexual self-efficacy-strength, psychological adjustment, marital happiness, anxiety at last intercourse, and depression. In a multivariate logistic regression model, poorer sexual self-efficacy was most closely associated with severe ED. The model rescaled R(2) was 0.63 (area-under-the-curve, 0.91).
CONCLUSIONS - Severe ED is related to impairment across a broad range of psychosocial domains, and clinicians should consider offering patients assistance in dealing with its psychosocial impact.
CONTEXT - Sexual communication and appropriate treatment of sexual partners is critical to the success of STD and HIV/AIDS prevention and control.
AIMS - To understand factors influencing intention of STD patients to inform their regular sexual partners and identify predictors influencing actual return of the partners.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN - A non-randomised survey of patients attending STD clinic in a district hospital between May and November 2000.
METHODS AND MATERIAL - 182 patients were administered structured questionnaires to understand their intention to notify their regular sexual partners and encouraged to refer their regular sexual partners to the clinic for management. Factors related to intent to notify partners and actual partner referral were analysed.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED - Chi square test and forward stepwise logistic regression.
RESULTS - Of the 182 STD patients 77.47% expressed their positive intention to notify their regular sexual partners. However, overall partner return rate was 40.65%. Patients from a better economic class (p=0.014), those who had sex since having the disease (p=0.001), those who felt it was easy to tell their partners (p=0.047) and perceived the necessity of investigating their partners (p<0.001) were more likely to have an intention to notify their partners. Independent predictors of actual return of sexual partners were patients' perception of partners' susceptibility (p=0.044), positive intention to notify partners (p=0.001), partners already informed before clinic visit (p=0.030) and presence of genital ulcerative diseases (p=0.033).
CONCLUSIONS - STD clinic counselling and education should focus on risk reduction, partner susceptibility, role of STDs in HIV transmission and improving spousal communication.
Investigations of face processing in persons with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) inform upon theories of the development of "normal" face processing, and the story that emerges challenges some models of the nature and origin of cortical face specialization. Individuals with an ASD possess deficits in face processing and a lack of a fusiform face area (FFA). Evidence from studies of ASD can be conceptualized best using an expertise framework of face processing rather than models that postulate a face module in the fusiform gyrus. Because persons with an ASD have reduced social interest, they may fail to develop cortical face specialization. Face specialization may develop in normal individuals because they are socially motivated to regard the face, and such motivation promotes expertise for faces. The amygdala is likely the key node in the system that marks objects as emotionally salient and could be crucial to the development of cortical face specialization.
Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
To ascertain beliefs about douching, douching practices, and their motivational antecedents among adult women living in the southeastern United States, we conducted a telephone survey of a random sample of 535 adult women. Douching was deemed a good hygienic practice by 65% of women, half of whom believed that douching was necessary for good hygiene. These beliefs were more common among black than white women. Older women and less educated women were more likely to believe that douching prevented infections and pregnancies. Physicians were the only discouraging influence regarding douching reported by a substantial proportion of the women. Healthcare providers' advice not to douche is correlated with not douching. Encouragement by mother (OR = 4.7, 95% CI 1.9-11.4), being black (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.1-6.9), and having no more than a high school education (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.2) were independently associated with ever (vs. never) douching. A substantial proportion of adult women living in the southeastern United States believe that douching is necessary for good hygiene. Our findings suggest that advice from healthcare providers to discourage the practice may have a salutary effect.
In many cities, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 seroprevalence among drug injectors stabilizes at 30-70% for many years without secondary outbreaks that increase seroprevalence by 15% or more. The authors considered how HIV-1 incidence can remain moderate at seroprevalence levels that would give maximum incidence. Previously suggested answers include behavioral risk reduction and network saturation within high-risk subgroups. Among 767 drug injectors studied in 1991-1993, during a period of stable high seroprevalence in New York City, risk behaviors remained common, and networks were far from saturated. The authors suggest a different network-based mechanism: in stable high-prevalence situations, the relatively small sizes of subnetworks of linked seronegatives (within larger networks containing both infected and uninfected persons) may limit infectious outbreaks. Any primary infection outbreak would probably be limited to members of connected subcomponents of seronegatives, and the largest such subcomponent in the study contained only 18 members (of 415 seronegatives). Research and mathematical modeling should study conditions that may affect the size and stability of subcomponents of seronegatives. Finally, if the existence of small, connected components of seronegatives prevents secondary outbreaks, this protection may weaken, and vulnerability to new outbreaks increase, if HIV-1 seroprevalence falls. Thus, in situations of declining prevalence, prevention programs should be maintained or strengthened.
The helping transactions that occur in group meetings have been theorized to be important therapeutic mechanisms within mutual-help (or self-help) groups. Hypothesized links between giving and receiving help and psychosocial adjustment were examined in a mutual-help group for individuals with serious mental illness (GROW). Participants' adjustment was assessed at two time points and helping behaviors were measured with observational coding of weekly group interactions during the period between assessments. Frequencies of helping behaviors were used to predict Time 2 adjustment after controlling for initial adjustment. Consistent with the helper therapy principle, giving help to others predicted improvements in psychosocial adjustment; giving advice was a unique predictor. Total amount of help received was not associated with adjustment, but receiving help that provided cognitive reframing was associated with better social adjustment. A predicted interaction suggested that receiving help was related to better functioning when members experienced high levels of group integration.
This study examined the marital interactions of 60 maritally aggressive and 75 nonaggressive men and their wives under a baseline condition, and then after the husband had received no alcohol, a placebo, or alcohol. These sessions were videotaped and coded with the Marital Interaction Coding System by coders who were unaware of group status and specific condition. Aggressive couples exhibited more negative behavior and higher levels of negative reciprocity in the baseline interaction than did nonaggressive couples. The administration of alcohol led husbands, but not wives, to increase their problem-solving attempts. Alcohol, but not the placebo, led to increased negativity of both husbands and wives.