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Asbestos and related fibers are associated with a number of adverse health effects, including malignant mesothelioma (MM), an aggressive cancer that generally develops in the surface serosal cells of the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. Although approximately 80% of individuals with MM are exposed to asbestos, fewer than 5% of asbestos workers develop MM. In addition to asbestos, other mineralogical, environmental, genetic, and possibly viral factors might contribute to MM susceptibility. Given this complex etiology of MM, understanding susceptibility to MM needs to be a priority for investigators in order to reduce exposure of those most at risk to known environmental carcinogens. In this review, the current body of literature related to fiber-associated disease susceptibility including age, sex, nutrition, genetics, asbestos, and other mineral exposure is addressed with a focus on MM, and critical areas for further study are recommended.
We previously investigated bladder cancer risk in a cohort of dyestuff workers who were heavily exposed to aromatic amines from 1922 through 1972. We updated the follow-up by 14 years (through 2003) for 590 exposed workers to include more than 30 years of follow-up since last exposure to aromatic amines. Expected numbers of deaths from bladder cancer and other causes were computed by use of national mortality rates from 1951 to 1980 and regional mortality rates subsequently. There were 394 deaths, compared with 262.7 expected (standardized mortality ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval = 1.36 to 1.66). Overall, 56 deaths from bladder cancer were observed, compared with 3.4 expected (standardized mortality ratio = 16.5, 95% confidence interval = 12.4 to 21.4). The standardized mortality ratio for bladder cancer increased with younger age at first exposure and increasing duration of exposure. Although the standardized mortality ratio for bladder cancer steadily decreased with time since exposure stopped, the absolute risk remained approximately constant at 3.5 deaths per 1000 man-years up to 29 years after exposure stopped. Excess risk was apparent 30 years or more after last exposure.
One of the general problems in biology today is that we are characterizing genomic sequences much faster than identifying the functions of the gene products, and the same problem exists with cytochromes P450 (P450). One fourth of the human P450s are not well-characterized and therefore considered "orphans." A number of approaches to deorphanization are discussed generally. Several liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approaches have been applied to some of the human and Streptomyces coelicolor P450s. One current limitation is that too many fatty acid oxidations have been identified and we are probably missing more relevant substrates, possibly due to limits of sensitivity.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[1,2-d]naphthalene (cIQ) is a carbocyclic analogue of the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in which a naphthalene ring system replaces the quinoline unit of IQ. The activity of cIQ in Ames Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 is known to be 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than IQ. cIQ undergoes efficient bioactivation with rat liver microsomes. The C8-dGuo adduct was formed when calf thymus DNA was treated with the N-hydroxy-cIQ metabolite and either acetic anhydride or extracts from cells that overexpress N-acetyl transferase (NAT). These studies indicate that bioactivation, the stability of the N-hydroxylamine ester, and the reactivity of the nitrenium ion with DNA of cIQ are similar to IQ and that none of these factors account for the differences in mutagenic potency of these analogues in Ames assays. Oligonucleotides were synthesized that contain the C8-dGuo adduct of cIQ in the frameshift-prone CG-dinucleotide repeat unit of the NarI recognition sequence. We have examined the in vitro translesion synthesis of this adduct and have found it to be a strong replication block to Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, Klenow fragment exo(-) (Kf(-)), E. coli DNA polymerase II exo(-) (pol II(-)), and Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4). Previous studies by Fuchs and co-workers identified E. coli pol II as the polymerase responsible for two-base deletions of the C8-dGuo adduct of N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene in the NarI sequence. Our observation that pol II is strongly inhibited by the C8-dGuo adduct of cIQ suggests that one of the other SOS inducible polymerases (E. coli pol IV or pol V) is required for its bypass, and this accounts for the greatly attenuated mutagenicity in the Ames assays as compared with IQ.
Human cytochrome P450 (P450) 4F11 is still considered an "orphan" because its function is not well characterized. A bacterial expression system was developed for human P450 4F11, producing approximately 230nmol P450 from a 3-l culture of Escherichia coli. P450 4F11 was purified and utilized for untargeted substrate searches in human liver extract using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabolomic and isotopic labeling approach (Tang et al., 2009 ). Four fatty acids-palmitic, oleic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic-were identified in human liver and verified as substrates of P450 4F11. The products were characterized as omega-hydroxylated fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of their trimethylsilyl derivatives. Kinetic analysis of the oxidation products confirmed that the fatty acids are substrates oxidized by P450 4F11. P450 4F11 also exhibited low activity for some drug N-demethylation reactions but none for activation of several pro-carcinogens.
Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Colorectal cancer, responsible for 50,000 deaths per year, is a contributing factor for considerable mortalities in the United States. Consumption of well-done red meat and saturated fats rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may be one of the causative factors for sporadic colon cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the formation of colon tumors in adult Apc(Min) mice was influenced by the ingestion of different types of fat containing benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P], a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compound. Treatment consisted of 50 and 100 microg B(a)P/kg body weight dissolved in peanut or coconut oil (representatives of unsaturated and saturated fats, respectively) administered daily to six-week-old male Apc(Min) mice via oral gavage for sixty days. At the end of exposure, mice were sacrificed; jejunum and colons were retrieved and preserved in 10% formalin for observation for gross pathological changes. An increased prevalence of adenomas in colons of mice that ingested B(a)P through saturated dietary fat compared to unsaturated fat and controls (p < .05) was noticed. Interestingly, we also observed adenomas with high-grade dysplasia in the B(a)P + saturated fat group, and these incidences were frequent at the 100 microg/kg B(a)P dose. On the other hand, the B(a)P-alone and unsaturated-fat groups did not show significant differences in the numbers of adenomas and invasive tumors in the both jejunum and the colon. Our studies established that dietary fat, especially saturated fat, potentiates the development of colon tumors caused by B(a)P in the Apc(Min) mouse.
OBJECTIVES - Occupational lung carcinogens have been primarily studied in men. The aim of this study was to investigate occupational lung cancer risk in a cohort of Chinese non-smoking women.
METHODS - In 1996-2000, 71 067 non-smoking women who had held a job outside the home were interviewed for the prospective Shanghai Women's Health Study in China. Exposure to lung carcinogens was assessed by matching occupation and industry titles from lifetime occupational histories with lists of jobs identified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer to have potential exposure to: (1) known (A-list); or (2) suspected (B-list) carcinogens. In addition, similar occupational titles were grouped independent of the a priori defined lists. Relative risks (RRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression.
RESULTS - During follow-up through 2005, 219 incident lung cancer cases were diagnosed. Jobs on the A-list and B-list were held by 0.8-6.7% and 2.7-9.4% of the cohort, respectively. Overall, ever holding any job on the A-list or B-list was not associated with lung cancer incidence. Indications of excess risk were found for two subgroups: painters (A-list) and rubber workers (B-list) (RR = 2.0 and 1.7, respectively, p
CONCLUSIONS - Significantly elevated lung cancer risk was associated with employment in some broad occupational categories that also included jobs with potential exposure to suspected carcinogens (B-list). The results suggest that although similar exposures to those described on the B-list may play a role in this cohort of Chinese women, carcinogenic exposure may not be restricted only to the jobs on the B-list.
Therapies targeting transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling using neutralizing antibodies and small molecular inhibitors are in multiple clinical trails. However, TGFbeta is known to work as both a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter, and current knowledge does not provide sufficient information on what factors mediate this switch in function and when this switch occurs. Recent advances in multiple disciplines suggest that immune cells from the tumor host may provide the answer.
The DNA lesion 1,N(2)-ethenoguanine (1,N(2)-epsilon G) is formed endogenously as a by-product of lipid peroxidation or by reaction with epoxides that result from the metabolism of the industrial pollutant vinyl chloride, a known human carcinogen. DNA replication past 1,N(2)-epsilon G and site-specific mutagenesis studies on mammalian cells have established the highly mutagenic and genotoxic properties of the damaged base. However, there is as yet no information on the processing of this lesion during transcription. Here, we report the results of transcription past a site-specifically modified 1,N(2)-epsilon G DNA template. This lesion contains an exocyclic ring obstructing the Watson-Crick hydrogen-bonding edge of guanine. Our results show that 1,N(2)-epsilon G acts as a partial block to the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (RNAP), which allows nucleotide incorporation in the growing RNA with the selectivity A>G>(C=-1 deletion)>U. In contrast, 1,N(2)-epsilon G poses an absolute block to human RNAP II elongation, and nucleotide incorporation opposite the lesion is not observed. Computer modeling studies show that the more open active site of T7 RNAP allows lesion bypass when the 1,N(2)-epsilon G adopts the syn-conformation. This orientation places the exocyclic ring in a collision-free empty pocket of the polymerase, and the observed base incorporation preferences are in agreement with hydrogen-bonding possibilities between the incoming nucleotides and the Hoogsteen edge of the lesion. On the other hand, in the more crowded active site of the human RNAP II, the modeling studies show that both syn- and anti-conformations of the 1,N(2)-epsilon G are sterically impermissible. Polymerase stalling is currently believed to trigger the transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair machinery. Thus, our data suggest that this repair pathway is likely engaged in the clearance of the 1,N(2)-epsilon G from actively transcribed DNA.
2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is a highly mutagenic heterocyclic amine formed in all cooked meats. IQ has been found to be a potent inducer of frameshift mutations in bacteria and carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Upon metabolic activation, IQ forms covalent adducts at the C8- and N2-positions of deoxyguanosine with a relative ratio of up to approximately 4:1. We have previously incorporated the major dGuo-C8-IQ adduct into oligonucleotides through the corresponding phosphoramidite reagent. We report here the sequence-specific synthesis of oligonucleotides containing the minor dGuo-N2-IQ adduct. Thermal melting analysis revealed that the dGuo-N2-IQ adduct significantly destabilizes duplex DNA.