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Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are highly conserved morphogens that are essential for normal development. BMP-2 is highly expressed in the majority of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) but not in normal lung tissue or benign lung tumors. The effects of the BMP signaling cascade on the growth and survival of cancer cells is poorly understood. We show that BMP signaling is basally active in lung cancer cell lines, which can be effectively inhibited with selective antagonists of the BMP type I receptors. Lung cancer cell lines express alk2, alk3, and alk6 and inhibition of a single BMP receptor was not sufficient to decrease signaling. Inhibition of more than one type I receptor was required to decrease BMP signaling in lung cancer cell lines. BMP receptor antagonists and silencing of BMP type I receptors with siRNA induced cell death, inhibited cell growth, and caused a significant decrease in the expression of inhibitor of differentiation (Id1, Id2, and Id3) family members, which are known to regulate cell growth and survival in many types of cancers. BMP receptor antagonists also decreased clonogenic cell growth. Knockdown of Id3 significantly decreased cell growth and induced cell death of lung cancer cells. H1299 cells stably overexpressing Id3 were resistant to growth suppression and induction of cell death induced by the BMP antagonist DMH2. These studies suggest that BMP signaling promotes cell growth and survival of lung cancer cells, which is mediated through its regulation of Id family members. Selective antagonists of the BMP type I receptors represents a potential means to pharmacologically treat NSCLC and other carcinomas with an activated BMP signaling cascade.
Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) is performed to treat otherwise incurable and fatal diseases, transplantation itself can lead to life-threatening complications due to organ damage. Pulmonary complications remain a significant barrier to the success of allo-HSCT. Lung injury, a frequent complication after allo-HSCT, and noninfectious pulmonary deaths account for a significant proportion of non-relapse mortality. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a common and potentially devastating complication. BOS is now considered a diagnostic criterion of chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD), and National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus has been published to establish guidelines for diagnosis and monitoring of BOS. It usually occurs within the first 2 years but may develop as late as 5 years after transplantation. Recent prevalence estimates suggest that BOS is likely underdiagnosed, and when severe BOS does occur, current treatments have been largely ineffective. Prevention and effective novel approaches remain the primary tools in the clinician's arsenal in managing BOS. This article provides an overview of the currently available and novel strategies for BOS, and we also discuss specific preventive interventions to reduce severe BOS after allo-HSCT. Therapeutic trials continue to be needed for this orphan disease.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
BACKGROUND - Asthma is associated with oxidant stress and diminished antioxidant defenses. Yet, the mechanistic role of oxidant stress and antioxidant supplementation in human asthmatics remains uncertain. We determined the effect of high doses of the antioxidant natural-source d-α-tocopheryl acetate for 16 weeks on allergen-induced airway oxidant stress, inflammation, and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine and allergen in atopic asthmatics in vivo.
METHODS - Thirty-three mild atopic asthmatics underwent bronchoscopy with baseline bronchoalveolar lavage and segmental allergen challenge. The allergen-challenged airway was lavaged 24 h later. At least 3 weeks later, patients underwent inhaled challenges with methacholine and specific allergen. Volunteers took 1500 IU of natural-source d-α-tocopheryl acetate daily for at least 16 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the two bronchoscopies and inhaled methacholine and allergen challenges were repeated. F(2)-isoprostanes, specific markers of oxidant stress, and selected Th1 and Th2 cytokines were analyzed in the lavage fluid.
RESULTS - Following supplementation of natural-source d-α-tocopheryl acetate, plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol increased and γ-tocopherol decreased. Both baseline and allergen-induced F(2)-isoprostanes significantly decreased, providing biochemical evidence for an antioxidant effect. Natural-source d-α-tocopheryl acetate reduced allergen-provoked concentrations of interleukin 3 and interleukin 4 and augmented levels of interleukin 12 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Natural-source d-α-tocopheryl acetate improved airway responsiveness to methacholine but did not alter airway reactivity to specific allergen.
CONCLUSIONS - Inhibition of oxidant stress by natural-source d-α-tocopheryl acetate modulates allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in human atopic asthmatics in vivo. These results need to be confirmed by a randomized placebo-controlled trial.
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Epidemiologic studies have shown that most cases of lung cancers (85%-90%) are directly attributable to cigarette smoking. Although much information has been gained about the effects of cigarette smoking on various signaling pathways causing lung cancer, nothing is known about the effect of cigarette smoking on the TGF-β-induced tumor suppressor function in lung cancer. To address this issue, lung adenocarcinoma A549 and immortalized bronchial epithelial HPL1A cells were chronically treated with cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and dimethyl sulfoxide (as a control) to mimic the conditions of long-term cigarette smoking. Prolonged exposure of these cells to CSC resulted in a decrease in Smad3 and Smad4 complex formation and TGF-β-mediated transcription due to reduced expression of Smad3. Long-term CSC treatment reduced apoptosis, increased cell viability, decreased TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition, and enhanced tumorigenicity. The decrease in apoptosis is due to the upregulation of Bcl-2, which is a downstream target of Smad3. Re-expression of Smad3 in the CSC-treated cells restored TGF-β signaling, increased apoptosis, and decreased cell viability and tumorigenicity. Withdrawal of CSC treatment resulted in the restoration of Smad3 expression, reduction in cell viability, and increased TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition. Expression of Smad3 is lower in lung tumors of current smokers than that observed in never-smokers. Collectively, these data provide evidence that cigarette smoking promotes tumorigenicity partly by abrogating TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis by reducing expression of Smad3.
OBJECTIVE - There is limited information on performance rates for tests of lung function and inflammation in pediatric patients with acute asthma exacerbations. We sought to examine how frequently pediatric patients with acute asthma exacerbations could perform noninvasive lung function and exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) testing and participant characteristics associated with successful performance.
METHODS - We studied a prospective convenience sample aged 5-17 years with acute asthma exacerbations in a pediatric emergency department. Participants attempted spirometry for percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%FEV(1)), airway resistance (Rint), and FE(NO) testing before treatment. We examined overall performance rates and the associations of age, gender, race, and baseline acute asthma severity score with successful test performance.
RESULTS - Among 573 participants, age was (median [interquartile range]) 8.8 [6.8, 11.5] years, 60% were male, 57% were African-American, and 58% had Medicaid insurance. Tests were performed successfully by the following [n (%)]: full American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society criteria spirometry, 331 (58%); Rint, 561 (98%); and FE(NO), 354 (70% of 505 attempted test). Sixty percent with mild-moderate exacerbations performed spirometry compared to 17% with severe exacerbations (p = .0001). Participants aged 8-12 years (67%) were more likely to perform spirometry than those aged 5-7 years (48%) (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.45-3.11) or 13-17 years (58%) (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.00-2.59).
CONCLUSIONS - There is clinically important variability in performance of these tests during acute asthma exacerbations. The proportion of patients with severe exacerbations able to perform spirometry (17%) limits its utility. Almost all children with acute asthma can perform Rint testing, and further development and validation of this technology is warranted.
Experimental asthma increases eosinophil and collagen deposition in the lungs of sickle cell disease (SCD) mice to a greater extent than in control mice. However, the effects of asthma on inflammation and airway physiology remain unclear. To determine effects of asthma on pulmonary inflammation and airway mechanics in SCD mice, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was used to generate chimeric SCD and hemoglobin A mice. Experimental asthma was induced by sensitizing mice with ovalbumin (OVA). Airway mechanics were assessed using forced oscillation techniques. Mouse lungs were examined histologically and physiologically. Cytokine, chemokine, and growth factors in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were determined by multiplex. IgE was quantified by ELISA. LDH was quantified using a colorimetric enzymatic assay. At baseline (nonsensitized), chimeric SCD mice developed hemolytic anemia with sickled red blood cells, mild leukocytosis, and increased vascular endothelial growth factor and IL-13 compared with chimeric hemoglobin A mice. Experimental asthma increased perialveolar eosinophils, plasma IgE, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in chimeric hemoglobin A and SCD mice. IFN-γ levels were reduced in both groups. IL-5 was preferentially increased in chimeric SCD mice but not in hemoglobin A mice. Positive end-expiratory pressures and methacholine studies revealed that chimeric SCD mice had greater resistance in large and small airways compared with hemoglobin A mice at baseline and after OVA sensitization. SCD alone induces a baseline lung pathology that increases large and small airway resistance and primes the lungs to increased inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness after OVA sensitization.
BACKGROUND - In this descriptive case series, 80 soldiers from Fort Campbell, Kentucky, with inhalational exposures during service in Iraq and Afghanistan were evaluated for dyspnea on exertion that prevented them from meeting the U.S. Army's standards for physical fitness.
METHODS - The soldiers underwent extensive evaluation of their medical and exposure history, physical examination, pulmonary-function testing, and high-resolution computed tomography (CT). A total of 49 soldiers underwent thoracoscopic lung biopsy after noninvasive evaluation did not provide an explanation for their symptoms. Data on cardiopulmonary-exercise and pulmonary-function testing were compared with data obtained from historical military control subjects.
RESULTS - Among the soldiers who were referred for evaluation, a history of inhalational exposure to a 2003 sulfur-mine fire in Iraq was common but not universal. Of the 49 soldiers who underwent lung biopsy, all biopsy samples were abnormal, with 38 soldiers having changes that were diagnostic of constrictive bronchiolitis. In the remaining 11 soldiers, diagnoses other than constrictive bronchiolitis that could explain the presenting dyspnea were established. All soldiers with constrictive bronchiolitis had normal results on chest radiography, but about one quarter were found to have mosaic air trapping or centrilobular nodules on chest CT. The results of pulmonary-function and cardiopulmonary-exercise testing were generally within normal population limits but were inferior to those of the military control subjects.
CONCLUSIONS - In 49 previously healthy soldiers with unexplained exertional dyspnea and diminished exercise tolerance after deployment, an analysis of biopsy samples showed diffuse constrictive bronchiolitis, which was possibly associated with inhalational exposure, in 38 soldiers.
OBJECTIVE - The objective of the study was to investigate the association of maternal vitamin D and maternal asthma and infant respiratory infection severity.
STUDY DESIGN - The study included cross-sectional analyses of 340 mother-infant dyads enrolled from September to May 2004-2008 during an infant viral respiratory infection. Maternal vitamin D levels were determined from enrollment blood specimens. At enrollment, we determined self-reported maternal asthma and infant respiratory infection severity using a bronchiolitis score. We assessed the association of maternal vitamin D levels and maternal asthma and infant bronchiolitis score in race-stratified multivariable regression models.
RESULTS - The cohort was 70% white, 19% African American, and 21% had asthma. Overall, the median maternal vitamin D level was 20 ng/mL (interquartile range, 14-28). Among white women, a 14 ng/mL increase in vitamin D was associated with a decreased odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.86). Maternal vitamin D was not associated with infant bronchiolitis score.
CONCLUSION - Higher maternal vitamin D levels were associated with decreased odds of asthma.
Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.