The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
We studied the risk of hip fracture in elderly persons receiving prescriptions for two commonly prescribed opioid analgesics--codeine and propoxyphene. Using automated prescription and hospitalization data, we identified 4,500 residents of Saskatchewan, Canada, aged 65 or older, who sustained a hip fracture between 1977 and 1985, and 24,041 age- and sex-matched controls. Compared to nonusers, the relative risk (95% CI) of hip fracture in current users of codeine or propoxyphene was 1.6 (1.4-1.9). There was no difference between relative risks of fracture among current users of codeine [1.6 (1.3-1.9)] and propoxyphene [1.6 (1.2-2.2)]. In new users of these opioids, the relative risk of fracture was 2.2 (1.7-2.8), compared to 1.3 (1.0-1.6) in users who received at least one additional prescription for codeine or propoxyphene in the 90-day period prior to the index date. Concurrent users of these opioids and psychotropic drugs (sedatives, antidepressants, or antipsychotics) had a risk of fracture 2.6 (2.0-3.4) times that of nonusers of either drug class. Review of a sample of medical records for 701 cases suggested this finding was not due to confounding by body mass, ambulatory status, functional status, or dementia. Given the essential role of opioids in the management of pain in geriatric practice, further study is needed to determine the psychomotor effects of opioid analgesics in older adults.
Assessment of cancer risk, particularly with a view toward targeting strategies for prevention, is a recent development. The future will see the garnering of more specific information about determinants of risk and their interaction with screening prevention and therapeutic modalities. We are not a full professional generation removed from a time when the question of malignancy in the breast was absolute, yes or no. Now special types of breast cancer are recognized that pose little threat to life, while some benign conditions indicate greatly increased risk of death from cancer. Comparisons of premalignant determinants in other organ systems indicate that cytologic, histologic, and metaplastic features may be more or less important in different organs. Their separate and combined analysis as predictors give a complex measure of tissue organization, which is often predictive of concurrent cancer and/or future cancer development. In proliferative breast disease, the markers of cancer risk may be classified into histologic categories of slightly, moderately, and markedly increased risk. In cases of slightly increased risk, the probability for cancer development is 1.5 to 2 times that of the general population; a moderately increased risk denotes that the likelihood of cancer development may be 4 to 5 times greater; a markedly increased risk has a predictive value of 9 to 10 times that of the general population.
Medications with central nervous system (CNS) effects, including benzodiazepines, cyclic antidepressants, antihistamines, narcotic analgesics, and hypoglycemics, have been thought to have the potential to impair driving. These drugs impair performance in younger drivers and some have been linked to an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. Even though persons 65 years of age and older frequently take these drugs and are more susceptible to CNS effects, no direct data exist regarding whether or not medications adversely affect driving safety in this population. Thus there is an urgent need for further research in this area.
During the acellular pertussis vaccine trial in Sweden, 4 children who were randomly assigned to receive the vaccine died of suspected or confirmed bacterial infections compared to 1 expected. There were no deaths in the placebo arm. This raised concern about the role of pertussis immunization in the development of serious infections. Through linking computerized immunization records with an active surveillance system for serious bacterial infections in children, the authors studied a cohort of 64,591 children immunized through Tennessee county health clinics who had a total of 158 episodes of invasive bacterial infections after a diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTP) immunization. There were 8 invasive bacterial infections that occurred within the first 7 days following DTP immunization, yielding an age-adjusted relative risk (95% confidence interval) of 1.0 (0.5 to 2.0), compared to the interval 29 or more days following immunization. There were 7 and 20 infections in the 8- through 14- and 15- through 28-day intervals following DTP immunization, giving relative risks of 0.8 (0.4 to 1.7) and 1.2 (0.7 to 1.9), respectively. These data provide reassurance that the use of DTP vaccine is not followed by a large increased risk of serious bacterial infections.
To compare the incidence of all nonvertebral fractures between elderly blacks and whites, the authors conducted a retrospective cohort study among Tennessee Medicaid enrollees aged 65 years or more from 1987 through 1989. A previously validated computer algorithm identified 6,802 persons of black or white race with 7,645 new nonvertebral fractures. The incidence of all nonvertebral fractures in blacks was only half of that in whites. This finding persisted after the authors controlled for sex, age, and nursing home residence (relative risk = 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.4-0.5). Rates were consistently lower among blacks within subgroups defined by these factors and for each of the 13 different fracture sites examined. The magnitude of the difference between blacks and whites in rates of all fractures combined and most site-specific fractures is similar to that previously reported for hip fractures. These consistent racial differences suggest a common underlying factor(s).
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are growing problems among U.S. adolescents. By examining recent data on AIDS surveillance and HIV seroprevalence, surveys on teenagers' knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, key treatment issues, and barriers to prevention, this manuscript reviews the problem and proposes possible ways of combating it. African American youth have the highest rates of AIDS and white youth the lowest. However, the largest number of AIDS cases overall has been recorded in white males, reflecting relatively high case rates in boys with hemophilia and in young male homosexuals. Predominant HIV risk factors for adolescents are unprotected sex and/or sharing injection drug equipment with an infected partner. Relatively high rates of HIV infection in adolescent females may indicate their greater physiological vulnerability than adult females to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data from HIV seroprevalence studies suggest a substantially increased heterosexual epidemic in the 1990s, especially in large east coast cities and southeastern rural areas where drug use and/or STDs are highly prevalent. More comprehensive prevention and treatment services are needed to prevent ongoing expansion of HIV infection and AIDS in the adolescent age group.
Specific atypical histological patterns of epithelial hyperplasia (AH) indicate a medically relevant risk of breast cancer development in 5-10% of women with otherwise benign biopsies. This risk is about four times that of similar women, i.e., of the same age and at risk for the same length of time. These relative risks are not stable with time and fall 10-15 years after detection. Absolute risk for invasive breast cancer after AH is about 10% in 10-15 years after biopsy and is most certain for perimenopausal women. Proliferative disease without atypia predicts only a slight elevation of risk with a relative risk (RR) of 1.5 to 2 times that of the general population. There is such a strong interaction between family history and AH that it is relevant to consider women with atypical hyperplasia who have a positive family history (FH) of breast cancer separately from those who do not. The absolute risk of breast cancer development in women with AH without a FH was 8% in 10 years (RR about 4), whereas those with a positive family history experienced a risk of about 20% at 15 years (RR of about 10). This interaction of AH and FH has also been observed in other recent studies. Low replacement doses of conjugated estrogen after menopause do not further elevate risk beyond that identified by histology.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
To determine whether commonly used psychoactive drugs increase the risk of involvement in motor vehicle crashes for drivers > or = 65 years of age, the authors conducted a retrospective cohort study. Data were obtained from computerized files from the Tennessee Medicaid program, driver's license files, and police reports of injurious crashes. Cohort members were Medicaid enrollees 65-84 years of age who had a valid driver's license during the study period 1984-1988 and who met other criteria designed to exclude persons unlikely to be drivers and to ensure availability of necessary study data. There were 16,262 persons in the study cohort with 38,701 person-years of follow-up and involvement in 495 injurious crashes. For four groups of psychoactive drugs (benzodiazepines, cyclic antidepressants, oral opioid analgesics, and antihistamines), the risk of crash involvement was calculated with Poisson regression models that controlled for demographic characteristics and use of medical care as an indicator of health status. The relative risk of injurious crash involvement for current users of any psychoactive drug was 1.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-1.9). This increased risk was confined to benzodiazepines (relative risk = 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.9) and cyclic antidepressants (relative risk = 2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.5). For these drugs, the relative risk increased with dose and was substantial for high doses: 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-4.4) for > or = 20 mg of diazepam and 5.5 (95% CI 2.6-11.6) for > or = 125 mg of amitriptyline. Analysis of data for the crash-involved drivers suggested that these findings were not due to confounding by alcohol use or driving frequency.
BACKGROUND - The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term event-free survival patterns of patients with significant coronary artery disease treated medically versus patterns of those treated surgically and to evaluate the factors associated with improved event-free survival.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We studied the results of 5,824 patients undergoing medical and surgical therapy for ischemic heart disease from 1969 to 1984, with follow-up to 1991. Events considered for this evaluation were nonfatal myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine factors differentially affecting surgical event-free survival. The survival benefits previously reported for bypass surgery in this population were largely preserved when event-free survival was examined. The two factors associated with significant event-free survival benefits for surgically treated patients were more severe coronary artery disease and a more recent surgery data. Patients with more severe coronary obstruction had a greater relative improvement with surgery in event-free survival than did patients with less severe anatomic disease. Event-free survival with surgery progressively improved over the period of the study and, by 1984, was significantly better than medical therapy for most patient subgroups. Patients with poor prognosis because of risk factors such as older age, severe angina, or left ventricular dysfunction had a risk reduction with surgery proportional to their overall risk under medical therapy.
CONCLUSIONS - Higher-risk patients with more severe disease (due to either coronary disease or other risk factors and age) should be considered for coronary revascularization because it is in these patients that coronary artery bypass graft surgery has the greatest impact in reducing future cardiovascular events.
A population-based, case-control study of laryngeal cancer was conducted in Shanghai, China, during 1988-1990, in which 201 incident cases (177 males, 24 females) and 414 controls (269 males, 145 females) were interviewed. Cigarette smoking was the major risk factor, accounting for 86% of the male and 54% of the female cases. After adjusting for smoking, there was little increase in risk associated with drinking alcoholic beverages. Among men, cases more often reported occupational exposures to asbestos and coal dust. A protective effect was associated with the intake of fruits (particularly oranges and tangerines), certain dark green/yellow vegetables, and garlic, but there was an increased risk with the intake of salt-preserved meat and fish. The findings suggest that risk factors for laryngeal cancer in Shanghai resemble those in Western countries, and they provide further evidence that dietary factors play an important etiologic role.