The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a serine protease which has frequently been implicated in the process of tumor cell invasion and metastasis. The degree of expression and mode(s) of regulation of the uPA gene in metastatic compared with nonmetastatic tumor cells have not yet been addressed. We have cloned and sequenced a full-length rat uPA complementary DNA and utilized Northern blot analysis to report that the uPA gene is expressed at levels 3.5- to 70-fold higher in metastatic cell lines than in nonmetastatic cell lines derived from two independent rat mammary adenocarcinomas. Nuclear run-on assays and RNA half-life estimations indicated that metastatic MAT 13762 rat mammary adenocarcinoma cells expressed 3.5-fold higher levels of uPA RNA than a nonmetastatic derivative (J-clone), due to a combined increase in uPA gene transcription and cytoplasmic RNA stability. By contrast, uPA RNA (and enzyme) levels were elevated by up to 70-fold in metastatic clones of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary adenocarcinoma (DMBA-8) due to predominantly posttranscriptional mechanisms. Moreover, treatment of nonmetastatic DMBA-8 cell lines with protein synthesis inhibitors led to an increase in nuclear and cytoplasmic uPA RNA levels, without altering the rate of uPA gene transcription. These results suggest that in addition to gene transcription, posttranscriptional events localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm are key determinants of uPA gene activation in rat mammary adenocarcinomas.
To examine the developmental expression and regulation of P450SCC and P450(17 alpha) in the rat placenta, trophoblast and decidual tissue were removed by dissection from conceptuses obtained from rats on selected days of pregnancy. Total cellular and poly(A)+ RNA and microsomal and mitochondrial fractions were isolated and analyzed for the presence of P450(17) alpha and P450SCC messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein by Northern and Western blot analysis. P450(17) alpha and P450SCC mRNA were detected in the trophoblast but not in the decidual tissue. Western blot studies demonstrated that the immunoreactive P450(17) alpha in the rat placenta is a 79-kilodalton protein, having a slower mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis than has been reported for other tissue. Antiserum preabsorbed with pure P450(17) alpha was unable to detect this protein, and immunoprecipitation indicated that it is associated with enzyme activity. Development studies have revealed that the two steroidogenic enzymes are differentially expressed during the progression of pregnancy. Whereas P450SCC mRNA and protein increase abruptly between days 10-12 of pregnancy, decline thereafter, and remain low, those of P450(17) alpha increase slowly and progressively, peaking on day 18 and declining just before parturition. It is the changes in P450(17) alpha and not that of P450SCC which appear to be intimately linked to the previously reported changes in placental production of androgen. To examine whether P450(17) alpha and/or P450SCC became expressed from midpregnancy because of the rapid decline in LH that occurs at this stage, pregnant rats were treated with low but sustained levels of human CG (hCG) in order to prevent the drop in LH activity. hCG treatment caused a remarkable down regulation in the expression of both P450SCC and P450(17) alpha message and protein. In summary, the results of this investigation have established, for the first time, the presence of messages for both P450(17) alpha and P450SCC in the trophoblast tissue forming the rat placenta. The results have revealed that these two enzymes are differentially expressed during the progression of pregnancy and that the expression of their genes is down-regulated by LH/hCG.
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) modulates some components of the acute phase response in hepatic cells. The mechanisms for these actions of TGF-beta are largely unknown. The authors recently found that the decrease in albumin mRNA after TGF-beta 1 treatment required de novo RNA and protein synthesis, suggesting that TGF-beta acts through induction of another gene. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether TGF-beta 1 could regulate the expression of both the jun and fos genes that encode transcriptional regulatory proteins that constitute the AP-1 complex, and to determine whether expression of these genes may be coordinated with the decrease in albumin mRNA. Northern blot hybridization was used to determine levels of specific mRNAs. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 increased the levels of both jun-B and fos-B mRNA by 60 minutes after treatment of mouse hepatoma (BWTG3) cells. When TGF-beta 1 was removed from the media after 4 hours, there was a sustained effect of increased jun-B and decreased albumin mRNA (greater than 48 hours), and the subsequent decrease in jun-B levels coincided with the increase in albumin mRNA. The tumor-promoting phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate [PMA]), known to induce jun and fos gene expression, caused increases in jun-B and fos-B that preceded the decrease in albumin mRNA levels at 24 hours. These observations are consistent with our hypothesis that jun-B and fos-B induction may participate in downregulation of albumin synthesis as well as other hepatic responses to TGF-beta.
The effects of glucocorticoid hormones on the expression of the growth factor-inducible genes JE, KC, and c-myc were analyzed in parental BALB/3T3 and polyomavirus middle-T antigen-transfected cell lines. Northern (RNA) blot hybridization and run-on transcription analysis showed that (i) glucocorticoid hormones selectively inhibit JE and KC expression at the transcriptional level and (ii) the downregulatory effect of glucocorticoids on JE and KC expression is partial for serum-stimulated and middle T antigen-transformed cells and total for quiescent and exponentially growing cells. Gel mobility assays using AP-1 oligonucleotides showed a positive correlation between glucocorticoid downregulating effect and presence of the AP-1 complex. JE and KC downregulation by means of the AP-1 complex may play a role in the actions of glucocorticoids as anti-inflammatory and antitumor agents. The ability of glucocorticoids to downregulate JE and KC was used to investigate the relevance of these genes to the mitogenic response to serum growth factors. Hydrocortisone did not alter the basal DNA synthesis level displayed by quiescent 3T3 cells, but it potentiated both the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor and c-myc induction by serum growth factors. Upon serum restimulation, untreated and dexamethasone-treated quiescent 3T3 cultures entered the S phase after an identical time lag (G1). These results suggest that (i) JE and KC are not necessary for the G0----G1----S transition and (ii) c-myc overexpression is likely to be the basis for the potentiating effect of glucocorticoids on serum growth factors.