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To evaluate the clinical correlates and long-term prognostic significance of silent ischemia during exercise, 1,698 consecutive symptomatic patients with coronary artery disease who had both treadmill testing and cardiac catheterization were studied. These patients were classified into three groups: Group 1 = patients with no exercise ST deviation (n = 856), Group 2 = patients with painless exercise ST deviation (n = 242) and Group 3 = patients with both angina and ST segment deviation during exercise (n = 600). Patients with exercise angina had a history of a longer and more aggressive anginal course (with a greater frequency of angina, with nocturnal episodes and/or progressive symptom pattern) and more severe coronary artery disease (almost two-thirds had three vessel disease). The 5 year survival rate among the patients with painless ST deviation was similar to that of patients without ST deviation (86% and 88%, respectively) and was significantly better than that of patients with both symptoms and ST deviation (5 year survival rate 73% in patients with exercise-limiting angina). Similar trends were obtained in subgroups defined by the amount of coronary artery disease present. In the total study group of 1,698 patients, silent ischemia on the treadmill was not a benign finding (average annual mortality rate 2.8%) but, compared with symptomatic ischemia, did indicate a subgroup of patients with coronary artery disease who had a less aggressive anginal course, less coronary artery disease and a better prognosis. Thus, silent ischemia during exercise testing in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease represents an intermediate risk response in the spectrum of exercise-induced ischemia.
Substrate utilisation and glucose homoeostasis during exercise is controlled by the effects of precise changes in insulin, glucagon and the catecholamines. The important role these hormones play is clearly seen in people with diabetes, as the normal endocrine response is often lost. In individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM), there can be an increased risk of hypoglycaemia during or after exercise or, conversely, there can be a worsening of the diabetic state if insulin deficiency is present. In contrast, it appears that people with non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) can generally exercise without fear of a deleterious metabolic response. The exercise response both in healthy subjects and in those with diabetes is dependent on many factors such as age, nutritional status and the duration and intensity of exercise. Since there are so many variables which govern individual response to exercise, an exact exercise prescription for all people with diabetes cannot be made. There are many adjustments to the therapeutic regimen which an individual with IDDM can make in order to avoid hypoglycaemia during or after exercise. In general, a reduction in insulin dosage and the added ingestion and continual availability of carbohydrates are wise precautions. On the other hand, exercise should be postponed if blood glucose is greater than 2500 mg/L and ketones are present in the urine. As more is understood about the regulation of substrate metabolism during exercise, more refined therapeutic strategies can be defined. An understanding of the metabolic response to exercise is critical for generating an effective and safe training programme for all diabetic individuals who wish to be physically active.
Type A patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) tend to ignore or underreport symptoms, especially during challenging tasks such as the treadmill exercise test. To determine whether type A CAD patients might be more likely than type B patients to have silent ischemia during exercise and consequently a worse prognosis, 403 patients with stable CAD who had significant coronary disease on angiography, a positive Bruce protocol treadmill test and a structured interview to assess type A behavior were studied. Median follow-up time was 6 years. Type A patients were more likely to experience silent ischemia during exercise than were type B patients (35 vs 25%, p = 0.05). Patients with silent ischemia during exercise had a history of fewer anginal episodes/week, and type A patients with silent ischemia were less likely to have had a history of typical angina. However, using the Cox model, there were no significant differences in survival between type A patients and B patients with silent ischemia (4-year survival 86 vs 79%, p = 0.44) and no significant differences in survival between type A patients with silent ischemia and type A patients with symptomatic ischemia (6-year survival 86 vs 80%, p = 0.59). Similar results were obtained for infarction-free survival. Type A patients are more likely than type B patients to have silent ischemia during exercise, but long-term survival is not affected.
Since carnitine deficiency has been reported in some patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis, we studied the effects of intravenous infusion of L-carnitine or placebo at the end of each dialysis treatment. The trial, which lasted seven months (one month baseline, 6 months treatment) was multicenter, double blind, placebo controlled, and randomized. Eighty-two long-term hemodialysis patients, who were given either carnitine (N = 38) or placebo (N = 44), completed this study. In each group, clinical and biochemical parameters during treatment were compared with baseline values. Intra-dialytic hypotension and muscle cramps were reduced only in the carnitine treated group, while improvement in post-dialysis asthenia was noticed in both carnitine and placebo groups. Maximal oxygen consumption, measured during a progressive work exercise test, improved significantly in the carnitine group (111 +/- 50 ml/min. P less than 0.03) and was unchanged in the placebo group. L-carnitine treatment was associated with a significant drop in pre-dialysis concentrations of serum urea nitrogen, creatinine and phosphorus (means +/- SEM, 101 +/- 4.5 to 84 +/- 3.9, 16.7 +/- 0.67 to 14.7 +/- 0.64, and 6.4 +/- 0.3 to 5.5 +/- 0.4 mg/dl, respectively, P less than 0.004). No significant changes in any of these variables were noticed in the placebo group. Mid-arm circumference and triceps skinfold thickness were measured in 11 carnitine and 13 placebo treated patients. Calculated mid-arm muscle area increased in the carnitine patients (41.37 +/- 2.68 to 45.6 +/- 2.82 cm2, P = 0.05) and remained unchanged in the placebo patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
To evaluate the usefulness of multiple measures from rest and exercise radionuclide angiography (RNA) in predicting cardiovascular death and cardiovascular events (death or nonfatal myocardial infarction) and to assess the prognostic usefulness of the RNA relative to clinical and catheterization data, we studied 571 stable patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease who had upright rest/exercise first-pass RNA within 3 months of catheterization and were medically treated. With a median follow-up of 5.4 years, 90 patients have died from cardiovascular causes, and 147 patients have either died or suffered a nonfatal myocardial infarction. Using the Cox regression model and a preselected group of RNA variables, the most important RNA predictor of mortality was exercise ejection fraction (chi 2 = 81, p less than 0.00001). Neither rest ejection fraction nor the change in ejection fraction from rest to exercise contributed additional predictive information. Two other RNA study variables, the change in heart rate from rest to exercise and rest end-diastolic volume index, did contribute additional prognostic information to the exercise ejection fraction (chi 2 = 23, p less than 0.0001). Compared with noninvasive clinical data (history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and chest radiograph), RNA variables were considerably more predictive of mortality (chi 2 = 71 [clinical variables] versus chi 2 = 104 [RNA]). Remarkably, the strength of the relation of RNA variables with mortality was equivalent to that of the set of catheterization variables previously demonstrated in our large angiographic population to be prognostically important (chi 2 = 104 [RNA] versus chi 2 = 102 [catheterization variables]). The RNA contained 84% of the information provided by clinical and catheterization descriptors combined. Furthermore, the RNA contributed significant additional prognostic information to the clinical and catheterization data (chi 2 = 13.6, p = 0.0035). For cardiovascular events, the relative prognostic usefulness of the RNA was similar, although relations with this outcome were generally weaker. Descriptors from the rest/exercise RNA exhibit a powerful relation with long-term outcomes and can be useful in defining risk, even when clinical and catheterization data are available.
The outcome of the diagnostic exercise test depends on such patient-related factors as age, maximum exercise heart rate, exercise time and severity of the underlying coronary artery disease (CAD). This study examined the hypothesis that type A behavior would affect the amount of effort expended, as indicated by the exercise time and the maximum heart rate achieved, thereby resulting in differences in exercise test outcome. A total of 1,260 patients with suspected CAD, all of whom had coronary angiography, a structured interview to assess type A behavior and a treadmill exercise test, participated. Of these patients, 818 (65%) had significant CAD, and 852 (68%) were type A. There were no differences between type A and B patients in either maximum heart rate or total exercise time. Among both type A and B subjects, 36% of treadmill tests were positive. Exercise test sensitivity was similar for both groups (69% for type A vs 72% for type B, p = 0.39). Similarly, specificity was similar for both groups (87% for type A vs 80% for type B, p = 0.09). Results did not change after using logistic regression to control for potential confounding factors. Thus, type A behavior does not need to be taken into account when interpreting exercise test outcome.
Glycogen metabolism in exercising gastrocnemius muscles was examined by natural abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Five-minute 13C-NMR measurement of muscle glycogen had a reproducibility of +/- 6.5% (+/- 4.8 mM). Experiments were performed on healthy fed male and female subjects. Two protocols were followed. 1) Subjects performed plantar flexion from rest at 15, 20, or 25% of maximum voluntary contraction for up to 9 h. 2) Subjects predepleted gastrocnemius glycogen with heavy exercise and then either performed low-intensity exercise as before or rested. Gastrocnemius glycogen was measured by NMR at rest and after each hour of exercise. In some sessions, both the exercised leg and the nonexercised leg were monitored with 13C-NMR. In protocol 1, blood velocity in the femoral artery was similarly assessed with ultrasonography. During low-intensity exercise from rest (protocol 1) muscle glycogen fell to a new steady-state value after several hours and then remained constant despite continued exercise. Mean blood velocity increased ninefold within 2 min of onset of exercise and remained constant thereafter. After predepletion (protocol 2), muscle glycogen was repleted both during low-intensity exercise and at rest. After 1 h the amount of glycogen repletion was greater when coupled with light exercise [48.5 +/- 2.8 mM after 1 h of exercise, 39.7 +/- 1.1 mM after 1 h of rest (P less than 0.05)]. During subsequent light exercise, glycogen reached a steady-state value similar to that obtained in protocol 1, while in resting, recovery glycogen levels continued to increase (+2.7 mM/h) over a 7-h period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
To assess the interaction of exercise and insulin action, healthy males were studied with saline infusion (n = 5) or with a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 15.0 mU.kg-1.min-1; n = 5 at each dose) during rest (40 min), moderate-intensity cycle exercise (100 min), and recovery (100 min). Metabolism was assessed using isotopic methods and indirect calorimetry. During rest, exercise, and recovery with saline infusion, plasma glucose was unchanged, total glucose utilization (Rd) was 2.4 +/- 0.4, 4.9 +/- 0.2, and 2.6 +/- 0.2 mg.kg-1.min-1, and carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation (OX) was 1.4 +/- 0.3, 10.6 +/- 1.1, and 0.5 +/- 0.2 mg.kg-1.min-1. The glucose infusion, insulin-dependent Rd, and CHO OX increased synergistically when exercise and insulin clamps were combined. Exercise decreased (P less than 0.05) the half-maximal doses (ED50) and increased the maximal responses (Vmax) for insulin-dependent Rd and CHO OX. Estimates of insulin-independent Rd were 1.3 +/- 0.7, 4.1 +/- 1.3, and 1.9 +/- 0.7 mg.kg-1.min-1 and insulin-independent CHO OX were 1.2 +/- 0.9, 10.4 +/- 1.3, and 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg.kg-1.min-1 during rest, exercise, and recovery. Estimates during exercise were greater than those at rest (P less than 0.05). The total suppression of free fatty acids (FFA) and fat OX by insulin were elevated by exercise (P less than 0.05). In summary, exercise and insulin interact synergistically in stimulating Rd and CHO OX.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
BACKGROUND - Endurance athletes have a high incidence of orthostatic intolerance. We hypothesized that this is related to an abnormally large decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and stroke volume (SV) for any given decrease in filling pressure.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We measured pulmonary capillary wedge (PCW) pressure (Swan-Ganz catheter), LVEDV (two-dimensional echocardiography), and cardiac output (C2H2 rebreathing) during lower body negative pressure (LBNP, -15 and -30 mm Hg) and rapid saline infusion (15 and 30 ml/kg) in seven athletes and six controls (VO2max, 68 +/- 7 and 41 +/- 4 ml/kg/min). Orthostatic tolerance was determined by progressive LBNP to presyncope. Athletes had steeper slopes of their SV/PCW pressure curves than nonathletes (5.5 +/- 2.7 versus 2.7 +/- 1.5 ml/mm Hg, p less than 0.05). The slope of the steep, linear portion of this curve correlated significantly with the duration of LBNP tolerance (r = 0.58, p = 0.04). The athletes also had reduced chamber stiffness (increased chamber compliance) expressed as the slope (k) of the dP/dV versus P relation (chamber stiffness, k = 0.008 +/- 0.004 versus 0.031 +/- 0.004, p less than 0.005; chamber compliance, 1/k = 449.8 +/- 283.8 versus 35.3 +/- 4.3). This resulted in larger absolute and relative changes in end-diastolic volume over an equivalent range of filling pressures.
CONCLUSIONS - Endurance athletes have greater ventricular diastolic chamber compliance and distensibility than nonathletes and thus operate on the steep portion of their Starling curve. This may be a mechanical, nonautonomic cause of orthostatic intolerance.
BACKGROUND - The treadmill exercise test identifies patients with different degrees of risk of death from cardiovascular events. We devised a prognostic score, based on the results of treadmill exercise testing, that accurately predicts outcome among inpatients referred for cardiac catheterization. This study was designed to determine whether this score could also accurately predict prognosis in unselected outpatients.
METHODS - We prospectively studied 613 consecutive outpatients with suspected coronary disease who were referred for exercise testing between 1983 and 1985. Follow-up was 98 percent complete at four years. The treadmill score was calculated as follows: duration of exercise in minutes--(5 x the maximal ST-segment deviation during or after exercise, in millimeters)--(4 x the treadmill angina index). The numerical treadmill angina index was 0 for no angina, 1 for nonlimiting angina, and 2 for exercise-limiting angina. Treadmill scores ranged from -25 (indicating the highest risk) to +15 (indicating the lowest risk).
RESULTS - Predicted outcomes for the outpatients, based on their treadmill scores, agreed closely with the observed outcomes. The score accurately separated patients who subsequently died from those who lived for four years (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve = 0.849). The treadmill score was a better discriminator than the clinical data and was even more useful for outpatients than it had been for inpatients. Approximately two thirds of the outpatients had treadmill scores indicating low risk (greater than or equal to +5), reflecting longer exercise times and little or no ST-segment deviation, and their four-year survival rate was 99 percent (average annual mortality rate, 0.25 percent). Four percent of the outpatients had scores indicating high risk (less than -10), reflecting shorter exercise times and more severe ST-segment deviation; their four-year survival rate was 79 percent (average annual mortality rate, 5 percent).
CONCLUSIONS - The treadmill score is a useful and valid tool that can help clinicians determine prognosis and decide whether to refer outpatients with suspected coronary disease for cardiac catheterization. In this study, it was a better predictor of outcome than the clinical assessment.