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Although severe hypovolemia can lead to hypotension and neurological decline, many patients with neurosurgical disorders experience a significant hypovolemia while autonomic compensatory mechanisms maintain a normal blood pressure. To assess the effects of normotensive hypovolemia upon cerebral hemodynamics, transcranial Doppler ultrasound monitoring of 13 healthy volunteers was performed during graded lower-body negative pressure of up to -50 mm Hg, an accepted laboratory model for reproducing the physiological effects of hypovolemia. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity declined by 16% +/- 4% (mean +/- standard error of the mean) and the ratio between transcranial Doppler ultrasound pulsatility and systemic pulsatility rose 22% +/- 8%, suggesting cerebral small-vessel vasoconstriction in response to the sympathetic activation unmasked by lower-body negative pressure. This vasoconstriction may interfere with the autoregulatory response to a sudden fall in blood pressure, and may explain the common observation of neurological deficit during hypovolemia even with a normal blood pressure.
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) has been proposed as a mediator of endotoxin-induced lung injury. When given to sheep, TNF alpha mimics endotoxin (LPS) causing hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension, leukopenia, reduced dynamic compliance (Cdyn), increased resistance to airflow (RL), exudation of lung lymph, and enhanced airway reactivity. TNF alpha also induces rapid release of thromboxane A2 (TxA2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and prostacyclin (PGI2). We hypothesized that the inflammatory effects of TNF alpha are due at least in part to cyclooxygenase products, and therefore cyclooxygenase inhibition would have similar effects on TNF alpha-induced lung injury as has previously been demonstrated for LPS-induced lung damage. Using awake sheep with chronic lung lymph fistulas, we measured Cdyn, RL, and FRC using a whole-body plethysmograph. Pulmonary artery (Ppa), left atrial (PLA), and systemic arterial (Psa) pressures were recorded continuously. Arterial blood gases (for calculating AaPO2), leukocyte counts, and lymph samples (for prostanoid levels) were collected every 30 min. Eleven animals underwent paired random-order experiments receiving ibuprofen (14 mg/kg) 1 h before human recombinant TNF alpha (10 micrograms/kg), or an identical dose of TNF alpha alone. Within 15 min of initiating TNF alpha, Ppa doubled and remained elevated for 4 h. Ibuprofen prevented the early rise in Ppa after TNF alpha. In the group receiving TNF alpha alone, increases in Ppa were accompanied by a 60% decline in leukocyte count and a 50% increase in AaPo2 within 30 min. Ibuprofen prevented increases in AaPo2, but it had no effect on leukopenia or late increases in lymph flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
We tested the hypothesis that adaptation to microgravity, simulated by a 10-day period of head-down tilt (HDT), alters the responses to an intravenous fluid load by causing a larger fraction of the infused volume to be retained and magnifying the acute hemodynamic effects. HDT caused a significant (p less than 0.01) decrease in blood volume (-0.72 liters) and weight (-1.6 kg). Rapid infusion (22 ml/kg over 20 min.) of isotonic saline before, during, and after HDT produced a transient blood volume expansion with 18% of the infusate retained intravascularly after 2 hours. HDT had no effect on this response. Control hemodynamics were significantly different with lower cardiac output and higher total peripheral resistance (TPR) during and after HDT. Saline caused significant increases in cardiac output, heart rate, and stroke volume and a decrease in TPR. The magnitude and time course of these changes were not altered by HDT. The results refute the hypothesis and suggest that during HDT new set points or operating points were established for the control of intravascular volume and hemodynamic state.