The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
The X.laevis XlHbox 1 gene uses two functional promoters to produce a short and a long protein, both containing the same homeodomain. In this report we use specific antibodies to localize both proteins in frog embryos. The antibodies also recognize the homologous proteins in mouse embryos. In both mammalian and amphibian embryos, expression of the long protein starts more posteriorly than that of the short protein. This difference in spatial expression applies to the nervous system, the segmented mesoderm and the internal organs. This suggests that each promoter from this gene has precisely restricted regions of expression along the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo. Because the long and short proteins share a common DNA-binding specificity but differ by an 82 amino acid domain, their differential distribution may have distinct developmental consequences.
Antigenic sites for six monoclonal antibodies that bind to the alpha subunit (G alpha) of the photoreceptor guanyl nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein or transducin) have been determined. Five of these antibodies (4A, 7A, 7B, 7C, and 7D) were shown in the preceding paper (Hamm, H. E., Deretic, D., Hofmann, K. P., Schleicher, A., and Kohl, B. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 10831-10838) to block G-protein-rhodopsin interaction. We have blotted tryptic and chymotryptic peptides of G-protein to nitrocellulose paper and found that these antibodies bind to peptides that contain the COOH-terminal end of the protein assessed by 32P-ADP-ribosylation of the COOH-terminus by pertussis toxin. The antigenic site is not exactly at the COOH-terminus since the antibodies also bind two peptides which lack a 2-kDa piece from the COOH-terminus. Antigenic sites are therefore on the 7-kDa chymotryptic peptide and 5-kDa tryptic peptide more than 2 kDa away from the COOH-terminus. Further evidence for this antigenic site comes from the ability of these antibodies to block pertussis toxin-mediated ADP-ribosylation while still binding to the previously ADP-ribosylated protein both on nitrocellulose blots and in immunoprecipitations. Antibody 4H, which was shown not to interrupt any of the functions studied, binds to the 11-kDa major tryptic fragment. To aid in the mapping of these sites onto the surface of G alpha, a model of the three-dimensional structure of G alpha has been generated using the G alpha primary sequence, predicted secondary structure, hydropathy plot, and the constraints of the GDP-binding site of the GTP-binding protein elongation factor Tu solved by Jurnak (Jurnak, F. (1985) Science 230, 32-36).
Seven monoclonal antibodies to the alpha subunit (G alpha) of the frog photoreceptor guanyl nucleotide-binding protein (transducin or G-protein) have been characterized as to their effect on G-protein function, and this has been correlated in the accompanying paper (Deretic, D., and Hamm, H. E. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 10839-10847) with the antibody-binding sites on G alpha tryptic fragments. Antibodies 4A, 7A, 7B, 7C, and 7D are members of a class of antibodies that block G-protein activation by light and therefore also block activation of the cGMP phosphodiesterase. All these blocking antibodies also block the interaction of G-protein with rhodopsin as measured by the light-scattering "binding signal," and as measured by the stabilization of meta-rhodopsin II by bound G-protein (extra-meta-rhodopsin II). The antibodies (or Fab fragments) also solubilize G alpha beta gamma from the membrane in the dark under isosmotic conditions and thus interfere with G alpha interaction with the membrane. Antibody 4A also blocks the extra-meta-rhodopsin II generated by G-protein-rhodopsin interaction in detergent solubilized membranes. Thus, even in the absence of phospholipids, antibody 4A blocks G-protein-rhodopsin interaction. Therefore, we suggest that the antibodies recognize a region of G alpha involved with binding to rhodopsin. An alternative hypothesis is that this antigenic site is a region of interaction between the alpha and beta gamma subunits, disruption of this interaction leading to removal of both the alpha and beta gamma subunits from the membrane and blocking interaction with rhodopsin. This does not seem to be the case because the antibodies immunoprecipitate the alpha beta gamma complex, and not just the alpha subunit. Other antibodies, 4C and 4H, do not block phosphodiesterase activation, the light-scattering signal, extra-meta-rhodopsin II formation, or interaction with the membrane in the dark and therefore recognize other sites on G alpha.
The chain origins of subunits M1, M2*, and M3 previously described (Butkowski, R. L., Wieslander, J., Wisdom, B.J., Barr, J.F., Noelken, M.E., and Hudson, B.G. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 3739-3747) of the globular domain of basement membrane collagen were identified, by amino-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, with respect to their relationship to the chains of collagen IV. M1 comprises two polypeptides which correspond to the noncollagenous segments (NC1) of the alpha 1 ad alpha 2 chains of collagen IV. M2*, containing the Goodpasture epitope, and M3 are distinct from these two constituents and from each other but have Gly-X-Y triplets and hydroxyproline at their amino terminus, reflecting the fact that each has a collagen chain origin. These results indicate the presence of two new collagen chains in basement membrane. These new chains appear to be integral components of collagen IV molecules. Alternatively, they could represent new molecular species of basement membrane collagen containing a globular domain, comprising M2* and M3, with physicochemical properties very similar to those of collagen IV.
Chick embryonic heart cell isolates and monolayer cultures were prepared from atria and ventricles at selected stages of cardiac development. The cardiac myocytes were assayed for myosin heavy chain (MHC) content using monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) specific in the heart for atrial (B-1), ventricular (ALD-19), or conductive system (ALD-58) isoforms. Using immunofluorescence microscopy or radioimmunoassay, MHC accumulation was measured before plating and at 48 hr or 7 days in culture. Reproducible changes in MHC antigenicity were observed by 7 days in both atrial and ventricular cultures. The changes were stage dependent and tissue specific but generally resulted in a decreased reactivity with the tissue specific MHC McAbs. In addition, the isoform recognized by ALD-58, characteristic of the conductive system cells in vivo, was never present in cultured myocytes. These results indicate that MHC isoforms produced in vivo may be replaced in monolayer cultures by an isoform(s) not recognized by our tissue specific MHC McAbs. This suggests that the intrinsic program of cardiac myogenesis, within cardiac myocytes, may not be sufficient to establish and maintain differential expression of tissue specific MHC in monolayer cell culture.
A panel of monoclonal antibodies (Mab's) has been raised against human platelet thrombospondin (TSP). One Mab, designated A2.5, inhibits the hemagglutinating activity of TSP and immunoprecipitates the NH2 terminal 25 kD heparin binding domain of TSP (Dixit, V.M., D. M. Haverstick, K. M. O'Rourke, S. W. Hennessy, G. A. Grant, S. A. Santoro, and W. A. Frazier, 1985, Biochemistry, in press). Another Mab, C6.7, blocks the thrombin-stimulated aggregation of live platelets and immunoprecipitates an 18-kD fragment distinct from the heparin binding domain (Dixit, V. M., D. M. Haverstick, K. M. O'Rourke, S. W. Hennessy, G. A. Grant, S. A. Santoro, and W. A. Frazier, 1985, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 82: 3472-3476). To determine the relative locations of the epitopes for these Mabs in the three-dimensional structure of TSP, we have examined TSP-Mab complexes by electron microscopy of rotary-shadowed proteins. The TSP molecule is composed of three 180-kD subunits, each of which consists of a small globular domain (approximately 8 nm diam) and a larger globular domain (approximately 16 nm diam) connected by a thin, flexible strand. The subunit interaction site is on the thin connecting strands, nearer the small globular domains. Mab A2.5 binds to the cluster of three small domains, indicating that this region contains the heparin binding domain and thus represents the NH2 termini of the TSP peptide chains. Mab C6.7 binds to the large globular domains on the side opposite the point at which the connecting strand enters the domain, essentially the maximum possible distance from the A2.5 epitope. Using high sensitivity automated NH2 terminal sequencing of TSP chymotryptic peptides we have ordered these fragments within the TSP peptide chain and have confirmed that the epitope for C6.7 in fact lies near the extreme COOH terminus of the peptide chain. In combination with other data, we have been able to construct a map of the linear order of the identified domains of TSP that indicates that to a large extent, the domains are arranged co-linearly with the peptide chain.
The globular domain of type IV collagen from bovine glomerular basement membrane was isolated under nondenaturing conditions. It was shown to exist in a hexameric form comprising monomeric and dimeric subunits, with the Goodpasture antigen residing in monomer M2 and dimer D2 as previously described (Butkowski, R. J., Wieslander, J., Wisdom, B. J., Barr, J. F., Noelken, M. E., and Hudson, B. G. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 3739-3747). The epitope, however, is sequestered inside the hexamer, but becomes exposed and binds with the Goodpasture antibody upon dissociation of the hexamer into its subunits after treatment with concentrated guanidine HC1 or dilute acetic acid (pH less than 3.0). The process is completely reversible even from the denatured state. Circular dichroism studies show that the conformation of each subunit is unusually resistant to change in 6 M guanidine HC1 at 25 degrees C. This suggests that exposure of the epitope by dissociation requires minimal or no unfolding of subunits. The results provide additional evidence for localization of the Goodpasture antigen to the globular domain of type IV collagen. Moreover, these studies extend the conclusion (Weber, H., Engel, J., Wiedemann, H., Glanville, R., and Timpl, R. (1984) Eur. J. Biochem. 139, 401-410) about a tumor basement membrane, to an authentic physiological membrane, that the globular domain is a major cross-linking site in the type IV collagen matrix.
The autoantibodies of patients with Goodpasture syndrome are primarily targeted to the noncollagenous (NC1) domain of the alpha 3(IV) chain of basement membrane collagen (Saus, J., Wieslander, J., Langeveld, J. P. M., Quinones, S., and Hudson, B. G. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 13374-13380). In the present study, the location of the Goodpasture epitope in human alpha 3NC1 was determined, and its structure was partially characterized. This was achieved by identification of regions of alpha 3NC1 which are candidates for the epitope and which are structurally unique among the five known homologous NC1 domains (alpha 1-alpha 5); amino acids that are critical for Goodpasture antibody binding, by selective chemical modifications; and regions that are critical for Goodpasture antibody binding, by synthesis of 12 alpha 3NC1 peptides and measurement of their antibody binding capacity. The carboxyl-terminal region, residues 198-233, was identified as the most likely region for the epitope. By experiment, lysine and cysteine were identified as critical amino acids for antibody binding. Three synthetic peptides were found to inhibit Goodpasture antibody binding to alpha 3NC1 markedly: a 36-mer (residues 198-233), a 12-mer (residues 222-233), and a 5-mer (residues 229-233). Together, these results strongly indicate that the Goodpasture epitope is localized to the carboxyl-terminal region of alpha 3NC1, encompassing residues 198-233 as the primary antibody interaction site and that its structure is discontinuous. These findings provide a conceptual framework for future studies to elucidate a more complete epitope structure by sequential replacement of residues encompassing the epitope using cDNA expression products and peptides synthesized chemically.
The epitope of monoclonal antibody (mAb 4A), which recognizes the alpha subunit of the rod G protein, Gt, has been suggested to be both at the carboxyl terminus (Deretic, D., and Hamm, H.E. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 10839-10847) and the amino terminus (Navon, S.E., and Fung, B.K.-K. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 489-496) of the molecule. To characterize further the mAb 4A binding site on alpha t and to resolve the discrepancy between these results limited proteolytic digestion of Gt or alpha t using four proteases with different substrate specificities has been performed. Endoproteinase Arg-C, which cleaves the peptide bond at the carboxylic side of arginine residues, cleaved the majority of alpha t into two fragments of 34 and 5 kDa. The alpha t 34-kDa fragment in the holoprotein, but not alpha t-guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate), was converted further to a 23-kDa fragment. A small fraction of alpha t-GDP was cleaved into 23- and 15-kDa fragments. Endoproteinase Lys-C, which selectively cleaves at lysine residues, progressively removed 17 and then 8 residues from the amino terminus, forming 38- and 36-kDa fragments. Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease is known to remove 21 amino acid residues from the amino-terminal region of alpha t, with the formation of a 38-kDa fragment. L-1-Tosylamido-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone-treated trypsin cleaved alpha t progressively into fragments of known amino acid sequences (38, then 32 and 5, then 21 and 12 kDa) and a transient 34 kDa fragment. The binding of mAb 4A to proteolytic fragments was analyzed by Western blot and immunoprecipitation. The major fragments recognized by mAb 4A on Western blots were the 34- and 23-kDa fragments obtained by endoproteinase Arg-C and tryptic digestion. Under conditions that allowed sequencing of the 15- and 5-kDa fragments neither the 34- nor the 23-kDa fragments could be sequenced by Edman degradation, indicating that they contained a blocked amino terminus. The smallest fragment that retained mAb 4A binding was the 23-kDa fragment containing Met1 to Arg204. Thus the main portion of the mAb 4A antigenic site was located within this fragment, indicating that the carboxyl-terminal residues from Lys205 to Phe350 were not required for recognition by the antibody. Additionally, the antibody did not bind the 38- and 36-kDa or other fragments containing the carboxyl terminus, showing that the amino-terminal residues from Met1 to Lys17 were essential for antibody binding to alpha t.
Transplantation of immunocompetent cells present within allogeneic bone marrow has been associated with the elimination of residual host leukemia, both in animal tumor models and in patients receiving marrow transplants for leukemia. This observation has been called the "graft-versus-leukemia effect." We have attempted to study this phenomenon in vitro by characterizing the cytolytic response of T cells from normal donors after in vitro activation with allogeneic leukemic cells. As expected, most T cells that react against an allogeneic patient's leukemic cells recognize their foreign HLA antigens and lyse the patient's nonleukemic remission lymphoid cells. In addition, we have shown that a small fraction of the T cells recognize and lyse foreign leukemic targets without lysis of nonmalignant remission targets from the same leukemic patient. These T cells have been isolated and characterized as CD3+, CD4+ cells expressing the alpha/beta T cell receptor (TCR). Their lysis appears to reflect specific antigen recognition mediated via the CD3-TCR complex and interactions involving the CD4 receptor. Some of these "leukemic specific" T cell lines, which are restricted by HLA class II molecules, can also lyse occasional nonleukemic cells from certain unrelated donors. This recognition appears to involve crossreactive determinants shared by the leukemic cells and the unrelated allogeneic nonleukemic cells. These specific interactions may represent an in vitro model of the graft-versus-leukemia effect.