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Dietary data from a population-based case-control study of 172 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 172 controls were analysed. A significant (P less than 0.01) dose-response relationship was found between intake of fat from animal sources and risk of ovarian cancer, but plant fat was not associated. Although the effect of animal fat was confounded by education, an adjusted odds ratio of 1.8 persisted for those in the upper quartile compared to the lower quartile of consumption (P for trend = 0.03). After adjustment for animal fat intake, calorific and protein intake had minimal effects on risk. Total vegetables were found to be somewhat protective, but the mechanism of action was unclear. Weight, height and relative weight (weight/height2) were not related to risk of ovarian cancer.
The relationship between exercise and energy expenditure is unclear, with some suggestions that exercise leads to increased energy expenditure over and beyond the increase due to the exercise itself. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the relationships among aerobic fitness level, body composition, and total daily energy expenditure in 78 subjects. Daily energy expenditure (determined in a whole room calorimeter) was significantly correlated with both fat-free mass (FFM) and aerobic fitness (estimated from maximum aerobic capacity or VO2max). However, multiple-regression analysis demonstrated that, after accounting for FFM, VO2max did not explain a significant amount of the remaining variation in energy expenditure. In addition, the relationship between resting metabolic rate and both FFM and VO2max was evaluated using data from 214 weight-stable subjects analyzed retrospectively. The results were identical with the results obtained from the 78 subjects in that VO2max did not have effects independent of FFM on energy expenditure. We conclude that aerobic fitness does not have a direct effect on energy expenditure. However, it may have effects that are mediated through body composition, since in both populations studied here, VO2max was positively correlated with FFM and negatively correlated with adiposity.
Several studies have suggested that the metabolism of one-carbon compounds may have a special role in the function of the exocrine pancreas. An amino acid-defined diet was used to produce folate deficiency in a group of male rats. These rats were compared with a group of rats pair-fed the same diet supplemented with adequate folate and with a third group fed the folate-supplemented diet with ad libitum access. Pancreatic folate concentrations were already severely depleted after 4 wk of feeding the deficient diet (0.95 +/- 0.10, 5.81 +/- 0.29 and 4.58 +/- 0.30 nmol/g for the deficient, pair-fed control and ad libitum-fed control groups, respectively). The level of folate present in the pancreas of nondeficient animals was second only to that reported for liver. Urinary amylase excretion by animals in the deficient group was higher than that by the other groups (245.5 +/- 21.9, compared with 181.9 +/- 14.5 and 195.3 +/- 10.9 units/mg creatinine for the deficient, pair-fed control and ad libitum-fed control groups, respectively) after 4 wk. The ratio of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine was 18.6 +/- 1.6 and 14.5 +/- 1.0 after 4 wk for the ad libitum-fed control and pair-fed control groups, respectively, but was significantly lower at 6.3 +/- 1.1 for the deficient group. These results indicate a profound effect of folate deficiency upon methyl group metabolism of the pancreas and suggest that this may result in decreased pancreatic function.
In a case-control study involving 268 cases of endometrial cancer and an equal number of population controls, we assessed the relationship of risk to body weight and fat distribution, examining weight at various ages and current anthropometric measurements. Weight gain during later adulthood and resultant high body masses were important risk predictors, indicating that obesity is an important risk factor, even in an area where the prevalence of obesity and incidence of endometrial cancer are low. Certain fat distribution patterns were related to risk of endometrial cancer independent of general obesity. In particular, fat deposits on the trunk were associated with elevated risks, with the odds ratio for the highest versus lowest quartile of subscapular skinfolds remaining significant even after adjustment for body mass index (odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-7.3). Central versus peripheral obesity, as measured by the subscapular:triceps ratio, also was related to increased risk, although the association failed to remain significant after adjustment for body mass (highest to lowest quartile, odds ratio = 1.7). In contrast, upper body obesity, as assessed by the waist:thigh ratio, was unrelated to risk. These results support the need for future studies assessing the relationship of hormonal and other biological parameters of fat distribution to assist in identifying causal mechanisms for this tumor.
To study the influence of diet composition on regulation of body weight, we fed 21 weight-stable subjects (11 lean, 10 obese) high-carbohydrate (HC) and high-fat (HF) diets for 1 wk each. Although diet composition was fixed, total energy intake was unrestricted. Subjects had a higher energy intake on the HF (11,039 +/- 2700 kJ/d) than on the HC (10,672 +/- 2617 kJ/d) diet (P less than 0.05), but energy expenditure was not different between diets. On day 7 of the HC diet, carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation was significantly related to CHO intake with the slope of the regression line 0.99, suggesting that overall CHO balance was near zero. However, the slope of the regression line was greater for obese than for lean subjects. On day 7 of the HF diet, fat oxidation was significantly related to fat intake but the slope of the line was 0.50, suggesting that overall fat balance was positive. However, this relationship was due entirely to lean subjects, with obese subjects showing no relationship between fat intake and oxidation.
Young postweaning pigs were fed a high fat diet containing beef tallow (saturated fat) or corn oil (unsaturated fat). Adipose tissue was used to measure adipocyte size and number of cells per gram of tissue, ligand binding by beta-adrenergic receptors and lipolytic and palmitate esterification rates. Pigs fed the saturated fat diet had more saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and less polyunsaturated fatty acid in the crude membrane fraction. Adipocytes were larger in pigs fed the saturated fat diet. There was no difference in the binding affinities of the receptors; more binding sites were expressed on a protein or cell basis and fewer sites were expressed per unit surface area in adipocyte ghosts isolated from pigs fed the saturated fat diet. Fatty acid esterification was greater in pigs fed saturated fat diets. Isoproterenol inhibition was marginal in both groups but tended to be greater in pigs fed saturated fat diets. The beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated lipolytic rates were not different; only the theophylline-stimulated rates tended to be greater in the saturated fat-fed group. Thus, a large increase in saturated fatty acid concentration of porcine adipose tissue membranes caused an increase in beta-adrenergic receptor number without any change in receptor affinity. These receptor changes were at best only marginally reflected in beta-adrenergic agonist-mediated functions.
Adult white rats were kept on natural diet containing various doses of Dithane M-45 (Mn and Zn ethylene-bisdithiocarbamate). Oxygen uptake (VO2), metabolic rate and energy balance were determined at intervals of several days. Oxygen uptake and metabolic rate were not significantly changed in animals receiving Dithane M-45 in concentrations of 5 and 50 ppm but they were significantly decreased in the animals kept on the diet containing the preparation in concentrations of 500, 2000 and 5000 ppm. The authors conclude that changes in body weight of animals after poisoning with Dithane M-45 are due, both to reduced supply and requirements for energy.
The effect administration of saccharose, glucose and glycine in solutions of equivalent relative sweetness on the uptake and utilization of energy and on blood glucose level was studied in growing female Wistar rats. It was shown that the amount of saccharose and the remaining sweeteners added to drinks has an effect on the regulation of energy uptake from the food and on metabolic processes connected with the energy utilization.
Locus of control, an individual difference construct from social learning theory, has shown some promise in predicting and explaining specific health-related behaviors. Research is reviewed on the utility of the locus of control construct in understanding smoking reduction, birth control utilization, weight loss, information-seeking, adherence to medication regimens, and other health or sick-role behaviors. Implications for health educators are presented.