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Methods to identify proteins contained in mixtures are described. The approach uses microcolumn liquid chromatography and automated tandem mass spectrometry in conjunction with protein and nucleotide database searching algorithms. This approach is applied to the identification of proteins obtained by immunoprecipitation reactions, interaction with a GST protein fusion products and interaction with a macromolecular complex.
Most mammalian genes will soon be characterized as cDNA sequences with little information about their function. To utilize this sequence information for large-scale functional studies, a gene trap retrovirus shuttle vector has been developed to disrupt genes expressed in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. A library of mutant clones was isolated, and regions of genomic DNA adjacent to 400 independent provirus inserts were cloned and sequenced. The flanking sequences, designated 'promoter-proximal sequence tags', or PSTs, identified 63 specific genes and anonymous cDNAs disrupted as a result of virus integration. The efficiency of tagged sequence mutagenesis suggests that many of the 10,000-20,000 genes expressed in ES cells can be targeted, providing defined mutations for the analysis of gene functions in vivo. In addition, PSTs provide the first expressed sequence tags derived from genomic DNA, and define gene features such as exon boundaries and promoters that are missing from cDNA sequences.
The M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) has been associated with essential and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Generation of haplotypes can help to resolve whether the T235 allele itself predisposes to the development of hypertension or acts as a marker of an unknown causal molecular variant. We identified 10 diallelic polymorphisms at the AGT locus and genotyped both a series of 477 probands of hypertensive families and 364 controls, all French Caucasians, as well as a series of 92 hypertensives and 122 controls from Japan. Despite a large ethnic difference in gene frequency, a significant association of T235 with hypertension was observed both in Cancasians (.46 vs. .38, P = .004) and in Japanese (.91 vs. .76, P = .002). In both groups, the G-->A substitution located at position -6 upstream of the initial transcription site occurred at the same frequency and in complete linkage disequilibrium with the T235 allele. No other polymorphism was found to be consistently associated with hypertension. Five informative haplotypes subdividing the T235 allele were generated. Whereas two of them were associated with hypertension in Caucasians, none of these two haplotypes (H3 and H4) reached statistical significance in Japanese. The analysis of the AGT-GT repeat revealed marked linkage disequilibriums between each of the diallelic polymorphisms and some (GT)n alleles, with similar patterns in the two populations. The strong disequilibrium between M235 and (GT)16 explained the increased frequency of that particular allele in French controls compared with hypertensives (.42 vs. .36, P < .01). The haplotype combining the M235T and G-6A polymorphisms appears as the ancestral allele of the human AGT gene and as the one associated with hypertension.
We provide here a list of 481 P450 genes and 22 pseudogenes, plus all accession numbers that have been reported as of October 18, 1995. These genes have been described in 85 eukaryote (including vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, and plants) and 20 prokaryote species. Of 74 gene families so far described, 14 families exist in all mammals examined to date. These 14 families comprise 26 mammalian subfamilies, of which 20 and 15 have been mapped in the human genome and the mouse genome, respectively. Each subfamily usually represents a cluster of tightly linked genes widely scattered throughout the genome, but there are exceptions. Interestingly, the CYP51 family has been found in mammals, filamentous fungi and yeast, and plants-attesting to the fact that this P450 gene family is very ancient. One functional CYP51 gene and two processed pseudogenes, which are the first examples of intronless pseudogenes within the P450 superfamily, have been mapped to three different human chromosomes. This revision supersedes the four previous updates in which a nomenclature system, based on divergent evolution of the superfamily, has been described. For the gene, we recommend that the italicized root symbol "CYP' for human ("Cyp' for mouse and Drosophila), representing "cytochrome P450', be followed by an Arabic number denoting the family, a letter designating the subfamily (when two or more exist), and an Arabic numeral representing the individual gene within the subfamily. A hyphen is no longer recommended in mouse gene nomenclature. "P' ("ps' in mouse and Drosophila) after the gene number denotes a pseudogene; "X' after the gene number means its use has been discontinued. If a gene is the sole member of a family, the subfamily letter and gene number would be helpful but need not be included. The human nomenclature system should be used for all species other than mouse and Drosophila. The cDNAs, mRNAs and enzymes in all species (including mouse) should include all capital letters, and without italics or hyphens. This nomenclature system is similar to that proposed in our previous updates.
Decision support is an important area of medical informatics research. Computer-based decision-support tools facilitate diagnosis and the management of patients after a diagnosis has been established. Diagnostic decision-support tools, such as Meditel, Quick Medical Reference, DXplain, Iliad, and PEM-DXP are potentially useful "expert systems." Other management-support tools, such as systems that use clinical practice guidelines to create reminders and alerts, also have been developed and evaluated. We do the following: (1) to provide an overview of diagnostic and management decision-support systems; (2) explore the background of and motivation behind these systems; (3) survey the uses of decision-support technology in office-based and inpatient pediatric practices; and (4) discuss the virtues and problems associated with some of these tools, and current controversies and future goals for computer-based decision support.
The 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey was conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics to study factors related to poor pregnancy outcome, such as adequacy of prenatal care; inadequate and excessive weight gain during pregnancy; maternal smoking, drinking, and drug use; and pregnancy and delivery complications. The survey is a nationally representative sample of 11,000 women who had live births, 4000 who had late fetal deaths, and 6000 who had infant deaths in 1988. Mothers were mailed questionnaires based on information from certificates of live birth, reports of fetal death, and certificates of infant death. Information supplied by the mother, prenatal care providers, and hospitals of delivery was linked with the vital records to expand knowledge of maternal and infant health in the United States. Data collection from the Longitudinal Followup of mothers in the survey began in January 1991. It provides information on health and development of low- and very low-birthweight babies, child care and safety, maternal health, maternal depression, and plans for adoption and foster care. Both surveys will provide useful data for clinicians in maternal and child health.