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Unknown actor in adipose tissue metabolism hiding in plain sight.
Collins S
(2019) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 116: 17145-17146
MeSH Terms: Adipose Tissue, Thermogenesis
Added July 22, 2020
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A recommended and verified procedure for in situ tryptic digestion of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues for analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry.
Judd AM, Gutierrez DB, Moore JL, Patterson NH, Yang J, Romer CE, Norris JL, Caprioli RM
(2019) J Mass Spectrom 54: 716-727
MeSH Terms: Formaldehyde, Humans, Paraffin Embedding, Proteins, Proteolysis, Specimen Handling, Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization, Tissue Array Analysis, Tissue Fixation, Trypsin
Show Abstract · Added October 15, 2019
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) is a molecular imaging technology uniquely capable of untargeted measurement of proteins, lipids, and metabolites while retaining spatial information about their location in situ. This powerful combination of capabilities has the potential to bring a wealth of knowledge to the field of molecular histology. Translation of this innovative research tool into clinical laboratories requires the development of reliable sample preparation protocols for the analysis of proteins from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, the standard preservation process in clinical pathology. Although ideal for stained tissue analysis by microscopy, the FFPE process cross-links, disrupts, or can remove proteins from the tissue, making analysis of the protein content challenging. To date, reported approaches differ widely in process and efficacy. This tutorial presents a strategy derived from systematic testing and optimization of key parameters, for reproducible in situ tryptic digestion of proteins in FFPE tissue and subsequent MALDI IMS analysis. The approach describes a generalized method for FFPE tissues originating from virtually any source.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Actin assembly and non-muscle myosin activity drive dendrite retraction in an UNC-6/Netrin dependent self-avoidance response.
Sundararajan L, Smith CJ, Watson JD, Millis BA, Tyska MJ, Miller DM
(2019) PLoS Genet 15: e1008228
MeSH Terms: Actin Cytoskeleton, Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex, Actins, Animals, Caenorhabditis elegans, Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins, Dendritic Cells, Membrane Proteins, Myosin Heavy Chains, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Netrins, Neurons, Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIB
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
Dendrite growth is constrained by a self-avoidance response that induces retraction but the downstream pathways that balance these opposing mechanisms are unknown. We have proposed that the diffusible cue UNC-6(Netrin) is captured by UNC-40(DCC) for a short-range interaction with UNC-5 to trigger self-avoidance in the C. elegans PVD neuron. Here we report that the actin-polymerizing proteins UNC-34(Ena/VASP), WSP-1(WASP), UNC-73(Trio), MIG-10(Lamellipodin) and the Arp2/3 complex effect dendrite retraction in the self-avoidance response mediated by UNC-6(Netrin). The paradoxical idea that actin polymerization results in shorter rather than longer dendrites is explained by our finding that NMY-1 (non-muscle myosin II) is necessary for retraction and could therefore mediate this effect in a contractile mechanism. Our results also show that dendrite length is determined by the antagonistic effects on the actin cytoskeleton of separate sets of effectors for retraction mediated by UNC-6(Netrin) versus outgrowth promoted by the DMA-1 receptor. Thus, our findings suggest that the dendrite length depends on an intrinsic mechanism that balances distinct modes of actin assembly for growth versus retraction.
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Fibroblast-specific plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 depletion ameliorates renal interstitial fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction.
Yao L, Wright MF, Farmer BC, Peterson LS, Khan AM, Zhong J, Gewin L, Hao CM, Yang HC, Fogo AB
(2019) Nephrol Dial Transplant 34: 2042-2050
MeSH Terms: Actins, Animals, Collagen Type I, Connective Tissue Growth Factor, Extracellular Matrix Proteins, Fibroblasts, Fibrosis, Kidney Diseases, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Serpin E2, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Ureteral Obstruction
Show Abstract · Added March 18, 2020
BACKGROUND - Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression increases extracellular matrix deposition and contributes to interstitial fibrosis in the kidney after injury. While PAI-1 is ubiquitously expressed in the kidney, we hypothesized that interstitial fibrosis is strongly dependent on fibroblast-specific PAI-1 (fbPAI-1).
METHODS - Tenascin C Cre (TNC Cre) and fbPAI-1 knockdown (KD) mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed within the TNC construct underwent unilateral ureteral obstruction and were sacrificed 10 days later.
RESULTS - GFP+ cells in fbPAI-1 KD mice showed significantly reduced PAI-1 expression. Interstitial fibrosis, measured by Sirius red staining and collagen I western blot, was significantly decreased in fbPAI-1 KD compared with TNC Cre mice. There was no significant difference in transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) expression or its activation between the two groups. However, GFP+ cells from fbPAI-1 KD mice had lower TGF β and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression. The number of fibroblasts was decreased in fbPAI-1 KD compared with TNC Cre mice, correlating with decreased alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression and less fibroblast cell proliferation. TNC Cre mice had decreased E-cadherin, a marker of differentiated tubular epithelium, in contrast to preserved expression in fbPAI-1 KD. F4/80-expressing cells, mostly CD11c+/F4/80+ cells, were increased while M1 macrophage markers were decreased in fbPAI-1 KD compared with TNC Cre mice.
CONCLUSION - These findings indicate that fbPAI-1 depletion ameliorates interstitial fibrosis by decreasing fibroblast proliferation in the renal interstitium, with resulting decreased collagen I. This is linked to decreased M1 macrophages and preserved tubular epithelium.
© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
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14 MeSH Terms
NATF (Native and Tissue-Specific Fluorescence): A Strategy for Bright, Tissue-Specific GFP Labeling of Native Proteins in .
He S, Cuentas-Condori A, Miller DM
(2019) Genetics 212: 387-395
MeSH Terms: Animals, CRISPR-Cas Systems, Caenorhabditis elegans, Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins, Fluorescence, Gene Editing, Green Fluorescent Proteins, Membrane Proteins, Nerve Tissue Proteins
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
GFP labeling by genome editing can reveal the authentic location of a native protein, but is frequently hampered by weak GFP signals and broad expression across a range of tissues that may obscure cell-specific localization. To overcome these problems, we engineered a Native And Tissue-specific Fluorescence (NATF) strategy that combines genome editing and split-GFP to yield bright, cell-specific protein labeling. We use clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats CRISPR/Cas9 to insert a tandem array of seven copies of the GFP11 β-strand ( ) at the genomic locus of each target protein. The resultant knock-in strain is then crossed with separate reporter lines that express the complementing split-GFP fragment () in specific cell types, thus affording tissue-specific labeling of the target protein at its native level. We show that NATF reveals the otherwise undetectable intracellular location of the immunoglobulin protein OIG-1 and demarcates the receptor auxiliary protein LEV-10 at cell-specific synaptic domains in the nervous system.
Copyright © 2019 by the Genetics Society of America.
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Extrinsic and Intrinsic Immunometabolism Converge: Perspectives on Future Research and Therapeutic Development for Obesity.
Caslin HL, Hasty AH
(2019) Curr Obes Rep 8: 210-219
MeSH Terms: Adaptive Immunity, Adipose Tissue, Animals, Energy Metabolism, Epigenesis, Genetic, Humans, Immunity, Immunologic Memory, Iron, Macrophages, Metabolic Diseases, Metabolic Networks and Pathways, MicroRNAs, Obesity
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
PURPOSE OF REVIEW - Research over the past decade has shown that immunologic and metabolic pathways are intricately linked. This burgeoning field of immunometabolism includes intrinsic and extrinsic pathways and is known to be associated with obesity-accelerated metabolic disease. Intrinsic immunometabolism includes the study of fuel utilization and bioenergetic pathways that influence immune cell function. Extrinsic immunometabolism includes the study of immune cells and products that influence systemic metabolism.
RECENT FINDINGS - Th2 immunity, macrophage iron handling, adaptive immune memory, and epigenetic regulation of immunity, which all require intrinsic metabolic changes, play a role in systemic metabolism and metabolic function, linking the two arms of immunometabolism. Together, this suggests that targeting intrinsic immunometabolism can directly affect immune function and ultimately systemic metabolism. We highlight important questions for future basic research that will help improve translational research and provide therapeutic targets to help establish new treatments for obesity and associated metabolic disorders.
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MR fingerprinting with simultaneous T, T, and fat signal fraction estimation with integrated B correction reduces bias in water T and T estimates.
Ostenson J, Damon BM, Welch EB
(2019) Magn Reson Imaging 60: 7-19
MeSH Terms: Abdomen, Adipose Tissue, Algorithms, Bias, Computer Simulation, Fourier Analysis, Head, Humans, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Knee, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Models, Statistical, Muscle, Skeletal, Phantoms, Imaging, Reproducibility of Results, Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted, Water
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
PURPOSE - MR fingerprinting (MRF) sequences permit efficient T and T estimation in cranial and extracranial regions, but these areas may include substantial fat signals that bias T and T estimates. MRI fat signal fraction estimation is also a topic of active research in itself, but may be complicated by B heterogeneity and blurring during spiral k-space acquisitions, which are commonly used for MRF. An MRF method is proposed that separates fat and water signals, estimates water T and T, and accounts for B effects with spiral blurring correction, in a single sequence.
THEORY AND METHODS - A k-space-based fat-water separation method is further extended to unbalanced steady-state free precession MRF with swept echo time. Repeated application of this k-space fat-water separation to demodulated forms of the measured data allows a B map and correction to be approximated. The method is compared with MRF without fat separation across a broad range of fat signal fractions (FSFs), water Ts and Ts, and under heterogeneous static fields in simulations, phantoms, and in vivo.
RESULTS - The proposed method's FSF estimates had a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.990 with conventional measurements, and reduced biases in the T and T estimates due to fat signal relative to other MRF sequences by several hundred ms. The B correction improved the FSF, T, and T estimation compared to those estimates without correction.
CONCLUSION - The proposed method improves MRF water T and T estimation in the presence of fat and provides accurate FSF estimation with inline B correction.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Applied Bioengineering in Tissue Reconstruction, Replacement, and Regeneration.
Colazo JM, Evans BC, Farinas AF, Al-Kassis S, Duvall CL, Thayer WP
(2019) Tissue Eng Part B Rev 25: 259-290
MeSH Terms: Animals, Biocompatible Materials, Bioengineering, Humans, Regenerative Medicine, Tissue Engineering
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2019
IMPACT STATEMENT - The use of autologous tissue in the reconstruction of tissue defects has been the gold standard. However, current standards still face many limitations and complications. Improving patient outcomes and quality of life by addressing these barriers remain imperative. This article provides historical perspective, covers the major limitations of current standards of care, and reviews recent advances and future prospects in applied bioengineering in the context of tissue reconstruction, replacement, and regeneration.
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6 MeSH Terms
Myosin IIA drives membrane bleb retraction.
Taneja N, Burnette DT
(2019) Mol Biol Cell 30: 1051-1059
MeSH Terms: Actins, Animals, Blister, COS Cells, Cell Membrane, Cell Membrane Structures, Cell Movement, Cell Surface Extensions, Chlorocebus aethiops, Cytokinesis, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeletal Proteins, HeLa Cells, Humans, Myosin Type II, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIA, Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIB
Show Abstract · Added March 27, 2019
Membrane blebs are specialized cellular protrusions that play diverse roles in processes such as cell division and cell migration. Blebbing can be divided into three distinct phases: bleb nucleation, bleb growth, and bleb retraction. Following nucleation and bleb growth, the actin cortex, comprising actin, cross-linking proteins, and nonmuscle myosin II (MII), begins to reassemble on the membrane. MII then drives the final phase, bleb retraction, which results in reintegration of the bleb into the cellular cortex. There are three MII paralogues with distinct biophysical properties expressed in mammalian cells: MIIA, MIIB, and MIIC. Here we show that MIIA specifically drives bleb retraction during cytokinesis. The motor domain and regulation of the nonhelical tailpiece of MIIA both contribute to its ability to drive bleb retraction. These experiments have also revealed a relationship between faster turnover of MIIA at the cortex and its ability to drive bleb retraction.
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18 MeSH Terms
Novel kidney dissociation protocol and image-based flow cytometry facilitate improved analysis of injured proximal tubules.
Manolopoulou M, Matlock BK, Nlandu-Khodo S, Simmons AJ, Lau KS, Phillips-Mignemi M, Ivanova A, Alford CE, Flaherty DK, Gewin LS
(2019) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 316: F847-F855
MeSH Terms: Acute Kidney Injury, Animals, Aristolochic Acids, Biomarkers, Cell Cycle, Cell Separation, Disease Models, Animal, Epithelial Cells, Flow Cytometry, Genes, Reporter, Kidney Tubules, Proximal, Luminescent Proteins, Male, Mice, Transgenic, Polyploidy, Tissue Fixation
Show Abstract · Added March 26, 2019
Flow cytometry studies on injured kidney tubules are complicated by the low yield of nucleated single cells. Furthermore, cell-specific responses such as cell cycle dynamics in vivo have conventionally relied on indirect immunohistochemistry and proximal tubule markers that may be downregulated in injury. Here, we report a new tissue dissociation protocol for the kidney with an early fixation step that greatly enhances the yield of single cells. Genetic labeling of the proximal tubule with either mT/mG "tomato" or R26Fucci2aR (Fucci) cell cycle reporter mice allows us to follow proximal tubule-specific changes in cell cycle after renal injury. Image-based flow cytometry (FlowSight) enables gating of the cell cycle and concurrent visualization of the cells with bright field and fluorescence. We used the Fucci mouse in conjunction with FlowSight to identify a discrete polyploid population in proximal tubules after aristolochic acid injury. The tissue dissociation protocol in conjunction with genetic labeling and image-based flow cytometry is a tool that can improve our understanding of any discrete cell population after injury.
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16 MeSH Terms