The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Although dietary patterns, specific foods, and their constituents have been linked to cancer risk, the role of dietary patterns and specific food groups in liver cancer risk has not been investigated. In the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS), two cohort studies of 132 837 Chinese women and men, we evaluated the relationship between dietary patterns, food groups, and liver cancer risk. Through in-person interviews, dietary information intake over the preceding year was collected by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Cox regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals with adjustment for potential confounders. During an average follow-up of 10.9 (SWHS) or 5.5 (SMHS) years, 267 incident liver cancer cases were identified after the first 2 years of study enrolment. Three dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. A vegetable-based dietary pattern was inversely associated with liver cancer; hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the lowest to highest quartiles were: 1.00; 0.98 (0.71-1.35); 0.93 (0.67-1.29); and 0.58 (0.40-0.84); P(trend) = 0.01. The association was stronger among participants with a history of chronic liver disease. Further analyses showed high intakes of celery, mushrooms, allium vegetables, composite vegetables (including asparagus lettuce and garland chrysanthemum), legumes and legume products were associated with reduced liver cancer risk (all P(trend) < 0.05). Fruit- and meat-based dietary patterns were not associated with liver cancer risk. Our study suggests that a vegetable-based dietary pattern is associated with reduced liver cancer risk.
© 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.
Cruciferous vegetables are a major source of glucosinolate-derived bioactive compounds such as isothiocyanates, which have been shown in animal and in vitro studies to inhibit cancer growth and progression. Few studies have investigated cruciferous vegetable intake after diagnosis and breast cancer outcomes. Using data from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project, which includes prospective data from U.S. and Chinese breast cancer survivors, we evaluated the association of cruciferous vegetables with breast cancer outcomes. Analyses included 11,390 women diagnosed with stage I-III invasive breast cancer (1990-2006) from four cohorts. Cruciferous vegetable intake (g/day) was assessed using food frequency questionnaires (mean of 22 months postdiagnosis). Study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q statistic; hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using delayed-entry Cox regression models stratified by study. After a median follow-up of 9.0 years, 1,725 deaths and 1,421 recurrences were documented. In pooled analyses using study-specific quartiles, cruciferous vegetable intake was not associated with breast cancer outcomes, adjusting for known clinical prognostic factors and selected lifestyle factors. HRs (95% CIs) by increasing quartiles (reference = lowest quartile) were 1.08 (0.93-1.25), 1.01 (0.87-1.18), and 1.10 (0.95-1.28) for recurrence (P(trend) = 0.34) and 1.01 (0.88-1.15), 0.97 (0.84-1.11), and 0.99 (0.86-1.13) for total mortality (P(trend) = 0.84). No associations were observed for subgroups defined by estrogen receptor status, stage, or tamoxifen therapy. Cruciferous vegetable intake at approximately two years after diagnosis was not associated with recurrence or mortality. Our results do not support an association between postdiagnosis cruciferous vegetable intake and breast cancer outcomes.
In the time period 1996-2004, 697 cases with lymphoid neoplasms and 3606 controls with nonneoplastic conditions were included in a case-control study conducted in the Cancer Institute of Uruguay. They were administered a routine questionnaire that included 8 sections and a food frequency questionnaire focused on intakes of total meat, red meat, salted meat, barbecued meat, processed meat, milk, total vegetables and total fruits, and alcoholic beverages. Lymphoid cancers were analyzed by multiple polytomous regression. Red meat, salted meat, and milk were positively associated with risk of lymphoid cancers [odds ratios (OR) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest one of red meat = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-2.08, OR for whole milk = 2.92, 95% CI 2.63-3.63). On the other hand, plant foods, particularly total fruits, and alcoholic beverages (mainly red wine) were protective. We could conclude that these foods could play a significant role in the etiology of lymphoid malignancies.
Most epidemiological studies evaluating the association of fruit and vegetable intakes on lung cancer risk were conducted in North American and European countries. We investigated the association of intakes of fruits, vegetables, dietary vitamins A and C, and folate with lung cancer risk among 61,491 adult Chinese men who were recruited into the Shanghai Men's Health Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed through a validated food frequency questionnaire during in-home visits. Multivariate Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of lung cancer risk associated with dietary intakes. During a median follow-up of 5.5 yr, 359 incident lung cancer cases accrued after the first year of follow-up and 68.8% of them were current smokers. Intakes of green leafy vegetables, β-carotene-rich vegetables, watermelon, vitamin A, and carotenoids were inversely associated with lung cancer risk; the corresponding HR (95% CI) comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles were 0.72 (0.53-0.98), 0.69 (0.51-0.94), 0.65 (0.47-0.90), 0.63 (0.44-0.88), and 0.64 (0.46-0.88). Intake of all fruits and vegetables combined was marginally associated with lower risk. Our study suggests that the consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables is inversely associated with lung cancer risk.
BACKGROUND - There is limited literature on the contributors to isoprostane metabolite 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-IsoP-M) compared with F(2)-isoprostanes (F(2)-IsoPs) as an oxidative stress biomarker.
OBJECTIVE - The objective of this study was to investigate whether plasma concentrations of antioxidants, urinary excretion rates of polyphenols, and antioxidants in food and dietary supplements are attributable to both urinary F(2)-IsoP and 15-F(2t)-IsoP-M concentrations.
DESIGN - Dietary intake information and blood and urine samples were obtained from 845 healthy middle-aged and elderly female participants of the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Urinary isoprostanes (F(2)-IsoPs and 15-F(2t)-IsoP-M) were measured and adjusted for creatinine concentrations.
RESULTS - Urinary 15-F(2t)-IsoP-M and F(2)-IsoP concentrations were lower in subjects who used a multivitamin. Lower F(2)-IsoP concentrations were observed in ginseng users, whereas lower concentrations of 15-F(2t)-IsoP-M were shown in subjects who used a vitamin E supplement. Plasma concentrations of several antioxidants (ie, β-carotenes, both trans and cis β-carotenes, lycopene other than trans, 5-cis and 7-cis isomers, cis anhydrolutein, and cis β-cryptoxanthin) were inversely associated with 15-F(2t)-IsoP-M but not with F(2)-IsoPs, whereas β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols were positively associated with 15-F(2t)-IsoP-M but not with F(2)-IsoPs. Urinary polyphenol quercetin was positively associated with both F(2)-IsoPs and 15-F(2t)-IsoP-M.
CONCLUSION - The results suggest that the F(2)-IsoP major metabolite 15-F(2t)-IsoP-M may be a more sensitive marker of endogenous oxidative stress status than are F(2)-IsoPs in the assessment of effects of antioxidants on age-related diseases.
In order to explore the role of nutrients and bioactive related substances in colorectal cancer, we conducted a case-control in Uruguay, which is the country with the highest production of beef in the world. Six hundred and eleven (611) cases afflicted with colorectal cancer and 1,362 controls drawn from the same hospitals in the same time period were analyzed through unconditional multiple logistic regression. This base population was submitted to a principal components factor analysis and three factors were retained. They were labeled as the meat-based, plant-based, and carbohydrates patterns. They were rotated using orthogonal varimax method. The highest risk was positively associated with the meat-based pattern (OR for the highest quartile versus the lowest one 1.63, 95 % CI 1.22-2.18, P value for trend = 0.001), whereas the plant-based pattern was strongly protective (OR 0.60, 95 % CI 0.45-0.81, P value for trend <0.0001. The carbohydrates pattern was only positively associated with colon cancer risk (OR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.02-2.09). The meat-based pattern was rich in saturated fat, animal protein, cholesterol, and phosphorus, nutrients originated in red meat. Since herocyclic amines are formed in the well-done red meat through the action of amino acids and creatine, it is suggestive that this pattern could be an important etiologic agent for colorectal cancer.
BACKGROUND - Asian populations habitually consume a large amount of cruciferous vegetables and other plant-based foods. Few epidemiologic investigations have evaluated the potential health effects of these foods in Asian populations.
OBJECTIVE - We aimed to examine the associations of cruciferous vegetables, noncruciferous vegetables, total vegetables, and total fruit intake with risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality.
DESIGN - The analysis included 134,796 Chinese adults who participated in 2 population-based, prospective cohort studies: the Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline through in-person interviews by using validated food-frequency questionnaires. Deaths were ascertained by biennial home visits and linkage with vital statistics registries.
RESULTS - We identified 3442 deaths among women during a mean follow-up of 10.2 y and 1951 deaths among men during a mean follow-up of 4.6 y. Overall, fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with risk of total mortality in both women and men, and a dose-response pattern was particularly evident for cruciferous vegetable intake. The pooled multivariate hazard ratios (95% CIs) for total mortality across increasing quintiles of intake were 1 (reference), 0.91 (0.84, 0.98), 0.88 (0.77, 1.00), 0.85 (0.76, 0.96), and 0.78 (0.71, 0.85) for cruciferous vegetables (P < 0.0001 for trend) and 0.88 (0.79, 0.97), 0.88 (0.79, 0.98), 0.76 (0.62, 0.92), and 0.84 (0.69, 1.00) for total vegetables (P = 0.03 for trend). The inverse associations were primarily related to cardiovascular disease mortality but not to cancer mortality.
CONCLUSION - Our findings support recommendations to increase consumption of vegetables, particularly cruciferous vegetables, and fruit to promote cardiovascular health and overall longevity.
Results from case-control and cohort studies of the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and gastric cancer risk have been inconsistent. Cases for the current study consisted of incident distal gastric cancers identified between 1996 and 2007 among members of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (n = 206) and the Shanghai Men's Health Study (n = 132). Intakes of fruits, vegetables, and select micronutrients were assessed on the basis of validated food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate-adjusted hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by Cox proportional hazards regression. For women, no associations were found between gastric cancer risk and the highest intake of fruits (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68, 1.54; P(trend) = 0.87) or vegetables (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.60, 1.31; P(trend) = 0.32). For men, increased fruit intake was associated with decreased risk of distal gastric cancer (for the highest quartile of intake, HR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.84; P(trend) = 0.004), but no association was seen with increased intake of vegetables (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.68; P(trend) = 0.87). The inverse association with fruit intake for men was more evident among ever smokers (P(trend) = 0.001) than never smokers (P(trend) = 0.67). No associations between dietary intakes of select antioxidant micronutrients were seen for men or women. Fruit intake is inversely associated with distal gastric cancer risk among men in Shanghai, China.
The prevalence of hypertension has increased over the past decade in many developed and developing countries, including China. This increase may be associated with changes in lifestyle, including dietary patterns. We evaluated the association of dietary patterns with blood pressure (BP) by using data from a large, population-based cohort study of middle-aged and elderly Chinese men, the Shanghai Men's Health Study. The present cross-sectional analysis includes 39 252 men who reported no prior history of hypertension, diabetes, CHD, or stroke nor use of antihypertensive drugs at study enrolment. Three dietary patterns, 'vegetable', 'fruit and milk' and 'meat', were derived using factor analysis. The fruit and milk diet was inversely associated with both systolic and diastolic BP (Ptrend < 0.001). The adjusted mean systolic BP was 2.9 mmHg lower (95 % CI - 3.4, - 2.4), and diastolic BP was 1.7 mmHg lower (95 % CI - 2.0, - 1.4) for men in the highest quintile of the 'fruit and milk' pattern compared with men in the lowest quintile. This inverse association was more evident among heavy drinkers; the highest quintile of the 'fruit and milk' pattern was associated with a 4.1 mmHg reduction in systolic BP v. a 2.0 mmHg reduction among non-drinkers (Pinteraction = 0.003) compared to the lowest quintile. The corresponding reductions in diastolic BP were 2.0 v. 1.3 mmHg (Pinteraction = 0.011). The 'fruit and milk' pattern was associated with a lower prevalence of both pre-hypertension and hypertension, and the associations appeared to be stronger among drinkers. Results of the present study suggest an important role for diet in the prevention of hypertension.
The prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in childhood diarrhea and the role of contaminated food products in disease transmission in Colombia are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to identify E. coli pathotypes, including E. coli O157:H7, from 108 stool samples from children with acute diarrhea, 38 meat samples and 38 vegetable samples. Multiplex PCR and Bax Dupont systems were used for E. coli pathotype detection. Eighteen (9.8%) E. coli diarrheagenic pathotypes were detected among all clinical and food product samples tested. Four different pathotypes were identified from clinical samples, including enteroaggregative E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, shiga-toxin producing E. coli, and enteropathogenic E. coli. Food product samples were positive for enteroaggregative and shiga-toxin producing E. coli, suggesting that meat and vegetables may be involved in transmission of these E. coli pathotypes in the community. Most E. coli strains identified belong to the phylogenetic groups A and B1, known to be associated with intestinal rather than extraintestinal E. coli clones. Our data is the first molecular E. coli report that confirms the presence of E. coli pathotypes circulating in Colombia among children with diarrhea and food products for human consumption. Implementation of multiplex PCR technology in Latin America and other countries with limited resources may provide an important epidemiological tool for the surveillance of E. coli pathotypes from clinical isolates as well as from water and food product samples.
(c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.