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OBJECTIVE - To examine the risk factors for urothelial carcinoma (UC) involvement of the prostate in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) for bladder cancer, as such involvement has both prognostic and therapeutic implications.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - We examined 308 consecutive men from 1998 to 2005 who had RCP for UC of the bladder, with whole-mount processing of their prostate. Prostatic involvement was categorized by site of origin (the bladder or the prostatic urethra) and, in the case of prostatic urethral origin, by depth of invasion, i.e. dysplasia/carcinoma in situ (CIS), involving the prostatic urethra, prostatic ductal invasion or prostatic stromal invasion. The impact of pathological characteristics was evaluated.
RESULTS - In all, 121 (39.3%) patients had some form of urothelial involvement of the prostate, of whom 59 (48.8%) had dysplasia/CIS of the prostatic urethra, 20 (16.5%) had ductal involvement and 32 (26.4%) had stromal involvement. Multivariate analysis showed that bladder CIS (odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.6, P = 0.012) and trigonal involvement of bladder tumours (2.0, 1.1-3.7, P = 0.028) were independent risk factors for urothelial involvement of the prostate.
CONCLUSION - There was prostatic involvement with UC in nearly 40% of patients undergoing RCP. In this study CIS and trigonal involvement were independent predictors of risk, but were not adequate enough to accurately identify most patients who have UC within their prostate; further prospective studies are needed to more accurately predict risk factors and depth of invasion.
PURPOSE - We have previously reported that embryonic rat bladder mesenchyma has the appropriate inductive signals to direct pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells toward endodermal derived urothelium and develop mature bladder tissue. We determined whether nonembryonic stem cells, specifically bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells, could serve as a source of pluripotent or multipotent progenitor cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Epithelium was separated from the mesenchymal shells of embryonic day 14 rat bladders. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from mouse femoral and tibial bone marrow. Heterospecific recombinant xenografts were created by combining the embryonic rat bladder mesenchyma shells with mesenchymal stem cells and grafting them into the renal subcapsular space of athymic nude mice. Grafts were harvested at time points of up to 42 days and stained for urothelial and stromal differentiation.
RESULTS - Histological examination of xenografts comprising mouse mesenchymal stem cells and rat embryonic rat bladder mesenchyma yielded mature bladder structures showing normal microscopic architecture as well as proteins confirming functional characteristics. Specifically the induced urothelium expressed uroplakin, a highly selective marker of urothelial differentiation. These differentiated bladder structures demonstrated appropriate alpha-smooth muscle actin staining. Finally, Hoechst staining of the xenografts revealed nuclear architecture consistent with a mouse mesenchymal stem cell origin of the urothelium, supporting differentiated development of these cells.
CONCLUSIONS - In the appropriate signaling environment bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells can undergo directed differentiation toward endodermal derived urothelium and develop into mature bladder tissue in a tissue recombination model. This model serves as an important tool for the study of bladder development with long-term application toward cell replacement therapies in the future.
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is caused by mutations in PKHD1, which encodes the membrane-associated receptor-like protein fibrocystin/polyductin (FPC). FPC associates with the primary cilia of epithelial cells and co-localizes with the Pkd2 gene product polycystin-2 (PC2), suggesting that these two proteins may function in a common molecular pathway. For investigation of this, a mouse model with a gene-targeted mutation in Pkhd1 that recapitulates phenotypic characteristics of human autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease was produced. The absence of FPC is associated with aberrant ciliogenesis in the kidneys of Pkhd1-deficient mice. It was found that the COOH-terminus of FPC and the NH2-terminus of PC2 interact and that lack of FPC reduced PC2 expression but not vice versa, suggesting that PC2 may function immediately downstream of FPC in vivo. PC2-channel activities were dysregulated in cultured renal epithelial cells derived from Pkhd1 mutant mice, further supporting that both cystoproteins function in a common pathway. In addition, mice with mutations in both Pkhd1 and Pkd2 had a more severe renal cystic phenotype than mice with single mutations, suggesting that FPC acts as a genetic modifier for disease severity in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease that results from Pkd2 mutations. It is concluded that a functional and molecular interaction exists between FPC and PC2 in vivo.
PURPOSE - We examined the role of transforming growth factor-beta in urothelial and bladder development. Transforming growth factor-beta signaling was attenuated in the urothelial compartment and the subsequent effects were examined in a tissue recombination model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Urothelium was cultured from adult rat bladders and transfected with control vector C7Delta or mutant DNIIR (dominant negative transforming growth factor-beta receptor II). Grafts were created by recombining transfected urothelium plus embryonic day 18 bladder mesenchyma and placed beneath the renal capsule of athymic mouse hosts. Grafts were harvested at 21 and 42 days. Final tissues were evaluated with staining and immunohistochemistry using hematoxylin and eosin, Gomori's trichrome strain, broad-spectrum uroplakin, smooth muscle actin-alpha, phosphorylated SMAD2 and Ki67 antigen. Bladder structures were defined as having smooth muscle, suburothelial connective tissue and mature urothelium expressing uroplakin. Urothelial compartment diameters were measured and subcategorized as small--0.10 to 0.40, medium--0.41 to 1.0 and large--greater than 1.1 mm.
RESULTS - At 21 days 14 C7Delta control and 15 DNIIR grafts were evaluated. No bladder tissue was seen in the C7Delta grafts vs 49 in DNIIR tissue, including 30 small, 9 medium and 10 large tissues. At 42 days 14 C7Delta and 12 DNIIR grafts were evaluated. Six bladder structures (5 small and 1 medium) were seen in the C7Delta cohort vs 27 (14 small, 7 medium and 6 large) in the DNIIR group. Immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated-SMAD2 was significantly attenuated in DNIIR tissue. In addition, Ki67 proliferative indexes were 4.0-fold higher in the DNIIR cohort compared to those in C7Delta tissues.
CONCLUSIONS - We successfully observed that primary urothelium cultures can be genetically manipulated and recombined with undifferentiated mesenchyma to grow bladder tissue. By attenuating transforming growth factor-beta signaling in the urothelium superior bladder tissue growth occurred, suggesting that transforming growth factor-beta is a growth inhibitor in this organ system.
Manipulatable models of bladder development which interrogate specific pathways are badly needed. Such models will allow a systematic investigation of the multitude of pathologies which result from developmental defects of the urinary bladder. In the present communication, we describe a model in which mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are directed to differentiate to form bladder tissue by specific interactions with fetal bladder mesenchyme. This model allows us to visualize the various stages in the differentiation of urothelium from ES cells, including the commitment to an endodermal cell lineage, with the temporal profile characterized by examining the induction of specific endodermal transcription factors (Foxa1 and Foxa2). In addition, final functional urothelial differentiation was characterized by examining uroplakin expression. It is well established that ES cells will spontaneously develop teratomas when grown within immunocompromised mouse hosts. We determined the specific mesenchymal to ES cell ratios necessary to dictate organ-specific differentiation while completely suppressing teratomatous growth. Embryonic mesenchyme is well established as an inductive tissue which dictates organ-specific programming of epithelial tissues. The present study demonstrates that embryonic bladder mesenchyme can also steer ES cells towards developing specific endodermal derived urothelium. These approaches allow us to capture specific stages of stem cell differentiation and to better define stem cell hierarchies.
Tissue recombination is a powerful method to evaluate the paracrine-signaling events that orchestrate the development of organs using the in vivo environment of a host rodent. Studies have reported the successful generation of primary cultures of rodent bladder urothelium, but none have reported their use to recapitulate bladder tissue with tissue recombination. We propose that primary cultured bladder urothelium, when recombined with inductive embryonic bladder mesenchyme, will form bladder tissue in a recombination model. Adult rat bladders were isolated and urothelium obtained. Sheets of bladder urothelium were re-suspended in collagen and maintained in tissue culture. After expansion (>20 passages), the urothelium was recombined with embryonic day-14 mouse bladder mesenchyme, then grafted beneath the renal capsule of immunocompromised mouse hosts. Grafts were harvested after 28 days. Control grafts were performed with bladder mesenchyme alone, cultured bladder urothelium alone, and collagen matrix alone. Final tissues were evaluated with staining and immunohistochemistry (H&E, Gomori's trichrome, broad-spectrum uroplakin, and smooth muscle actin alpha and gamma). Immunocytochemistry on cultured urothelium for broad-spectrum keratin, vimentin, and broad-spectrum uroplakin confirmed pure populations, void of mesenchymal contaminants. Staining of recombinant grafts demonstrated bladder tissue with mature urothelium and stromal differentiation. Control tissues were void of bladder tissue formation. We have successfully demonstrated that a chimeric bladder is formed from primary cultured bladder urothelium recombined with embryonic bladder mesenchyme. This is a powerful new tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of bladder development and disease. Future applications may include the in vitro genetic manipulation of urothelium and examining those effects on growth and development in an in vivo environment.
(c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Urinary bladder malfunction and disorders are caused by congenital diseases, trauma, inflammation, radiation, and nerve injuries. Loss of normal bladder function results in urinary tract infection, incontinence, renal failure, and end-stage renal dysfunction. In severe cases, bladder augmentation is required using segments of the gastrointestinal tract. However, use of gastrointestinal mucosa can result in complications such as electrolyte imbalance, stone formation, urinary tract infection, mucous production, and malignancy. Recent tissue engineering techniques use acellular grafts, cultured cells combined with biodegradable scaffolds, and cell sheets. These techniques are not all currently applicable for human bladder reconstruction. However, new avenues for bladder reconstruction maybe facilitated by a better understanding of urogenital development, the cellular and molecular biology of urothelium, and cell-cell interactions, which modulate tissue repair, homeostasis, and disease progression.
Signaling by the ureteric bud epithelium is essential for survival, proliferation and differentiation of the metanephric mesenchyme during kidney development. Most studies that have addressed ureteric signaling have focused on the proximal, branching, ureteric epithelium. We demonstrate that sonic hedgehog is expressed in the ureteric epithelium of the distal, non-branching medullary collecting ducts and continues into the epithelium of the ureter -- the urinary outflow tract that connects the kidney with the bladder. Upregulation of patched 1, the sonic hedgehog receptor and a downstream target gene of the signaling pathway in the mesenchyme surrounding the distal collecting ducts and the ureter suggests that sonic hedgehog acts as a paracrine signal. In vivo and in vitro analyses demonstrate that sonic hedgehog promotes mesenchymal cell proliferation, regulates the timing of differentiation of smooth muscle progenitor cells, and sets the pattern of mesenchymal differentiation through its dose-dependent inhibition of smooth muscle formation. In addition, we also show that bone morphogenetic protein 4 is a downstream target gene of sonic hedgehog signaling in kidney stroma and ureteral mesenchyme, but does not mediate the effects of sonic hedgehog in the control of mesenchymal proliferation.
PURPOSE Techniques that can be used to examine the molecular mechanisms of stromal-epithelial interactions are described. MATERIALS AND METHODS A historical perspective of available techniques is provided. Recent developments and examples are used to illustrate and provide descriptive literature references for these methods. Since the possibilities for manipulating experimental systems are enormous and rapidly expanding, the reader should be aware that this review is an overview of how data have been and could be obtained rather than a comprehensive listing of what has been achieved. This review focuses on studies performed in the organs of the urogenital tract to illustrate techniques that are available.RESULTS Recent technological innovations have impacted our ability to manipulate specific components and pathways of stromal-epithelial interactions. They include rapid developments in transgenic and gene knockout mouse technology, and the development of highly efficacious gene delivery and expression systems. CONCLUSIONS These technologies have the potential to transform our understanding of the mechanistic basis of intercellular communication and point the way toward new therapeutic approaches for benign and malignant proliferative conditions.