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The effects of retinoids, the structural derivatives of vitamin A (retinol), on post-natal peak bone density acquisition and skeletal remodeling are complex and compartment specific. Emerging data indicates that retinoids, such as all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and its precursor all trans retinaldehyde (Rald), exhibit distinct and divergent transcriptional effects in metabolism. Despite these observations, the role of enzymes that control retinoid metabolism in bone remains undefined. In this study, we examined the skeletal phenotype of mice deficient in retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1), the enzyme responsible for converting Rald to ATRA in adult animals. Bone densitometry and micro-computed tomography (µCT) demonstrated that Aldh1a1-deficient (Aldh1a1(-/-) ) female mice had higher trabecular and cortical bone mass compared to age and sex-matched control C57Bl/6 wild type (WT) mice at multiple time points. Histomorphometry confirmed increased cortical bone thickness and demonstrated significantly higher bone marrow adiposity in Aldh1a1(-/-) mice. In serum assays, Aldh1a1(-/-) mice also had higher serum IGF-1 levels. In vitro, primary Aldh1a1(-/-) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressed significantly higher levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and demonstrated enhanced osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis versus WT MSCs. BMP2 was also expressed at higher levels in the femurs and tibias of Aldh1a1(-/-) mice with accompanying induction of BMP2-regulated responses, including expression of Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase, and Smad phosphorylation. In vitro, Rald, which accumulates in Aldh1a1(-/-) mice, potently induced BMP2 in WT MSCs in a retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-dependent manner, suggesting that Rald is involved in the BMP2 increases seen in Aldh1a1 deficiency in vivo. Collectively, these data implicate Aldh1a1 as a novel determinant of cortical bone density and marrow adiposity in the skeleton in vivo through modulation of BMP signaling.
BACKGROUND - Tibial eminence fractures occur most commonly in skeletally immature children. Several techniques using physeal-sparing fracture fixation have been described, but their structural properties have not been evaluated.
PURPOSE - To determine the strength and resistance to displacement of physeal-sparing techniques used to fix tibial eminence fractures.
STUDY DESIGN - Controlled laboratory study.
METHODS - Skeletally immature porcine knees were randomized into 4 treatment groups: (1) ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene suture-suture button (UHMWPE/SB), (2) suture anchor, (3) polydioxanone suture-suture button (PDS/SB), and (4) screw fixation. A prospective analysis of bone mineral density using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was performed on all specimens. Fracture fragments were created in a standardized manner and measured for size comparison. After fracture fixation, biomechanical testing was performed with cyclical and load-to-failure protocols by loading the tibia with an anterior shear force.
RESULTS - In load-to-failure testing, screw fixation had a significantly lower median peak failure load (186.4 N; lower quartile [LQ], 158.4 N; upper quartile [UQ], 232.6 N) than did UHMWPE/SB (465.8 N; LQ, 397.8 N; UQ, 527.8 N), suture anchors (440.5 N; LQ, 323.0 N; UQ, 562.3 N), and PDS/SB (404.3 N; LQ, 385.9 N; UQ, 415.6 N). UHMWPE/SB demonstrated a significantly higher median yield load (465.8 N; LQ, 397.8 N; UQ, 527.8 N) than did PDS/SB (306.7 N; LQ, 271.4, N; UQ, 405.7 N) and screw fixation (179.0 N; LQ, 120.2 N; UQ, 232.5 N). During cyclical testing, screw fixation demonstrated significantly lower percentage survival of specimens (0%) compared with the other groups (UHMWPE/SB, 100%; suture anchor, 78%; PDS/SB, 78%). After 1000 cycles of loading, PDS/SB fixation had significantly more median creep (6.76 mm; LQ, 6.34 mm; UQ, 8.28 mm) than did UHMWPE/SB (4.43 mm; LQ, 3.80 mm; UQ, 4.73 mm) and suture anchor fixation (3.06 mm; LQ, 2.59 mm; UQ, 4.28 mm). The lowest median stiffness was observed in the PDS/SB group (48.6 N/mm; LQ, 45.3 N/mm; UQ, 54.2 N/mm). UHMWPE/SB fixation demonstrated a significantly higher median peak failure load after cyclic testing (469.0 N; LQ, 380.6 N; UQ, 507.2 N) than did PDS/SB (237.7 N; LQ, 197.3 N; UQ, 298.3 N) and screw fixation (132.4 N; LQ, 123.7 N; UQ, 180.9 N). Suture anchor fixation had significantly more variance, as demonstrated by width of interquartile range, in peak failure load, yield load, and creep than did other techniques.
CONCLUSION - Physeal-sparing fixation of tibial eminence fractures with UHMWPE suture-suture button is biomechanically superior to both PDS suture-suture button and a single screw at the time of surgery and provides more consistent fixation than do suture anchors.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE - Suture anchors provide inconsistent fixation for tibial eminence fractures.
BACKGROUND - Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder with various skeletal abnormalities occurring as part of a complex phenotype. Tibial dysplasia, which typically presents as anterolateral bowing of the leg with subsequent fracture and nonunion (pseudarthrosis), is a serious but infrequent osseous manifestation of NF1. Over the past several years, results from clinical and experimental studies have advanced our knowledge of the role of NF1 in bone. On the basis of current knowledge, we propose a number of concepts to consider as a theoretical approach to the optimal management of tibial pseudarthrosis.
METHODS - A literature review for both clinical treatment and preclinical models for tibial dysplasia in NF1 was performed. Concepts were discussed and developed by experts who participated in the Children's Tumor Foundation sponsored International Bone Abnormalities Consortium meeting in 2011.
RESULTS - Concepts for a theoretical approach to treating tibial pseudarthrosis include: bone fixation appropriate to achieve stability in any given case; debridement of the "fibrous pseudarthrosis tissue" between the bone segments associated with the pseudarthrosis; creating a healthy vascular bed for bone repair; promoting osteogenesis; controlling overactive bone resorption (catabolism); prevention of recurrence of the "fibrous pseudarthrosis tissue"; and achievement of long-term bone health to prevent recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS - Clinical trials are needed to assess effectiveness of the wide variation of surgical and pharmacologic approaches currently in practice for the treatment of tibial pseudarthrosis in NF1.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE - Level V, expert opinion.
Radiation therapy is an integral part of treatment for cancer patients; however, major side effects of this modality include aberrant bone remodeling and bone loss. Ionizing radiation (IR) is a major external factor that contributes to a significant increase in oxidative stress such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), has been implicated in osteoporotic phenotypes, and has been implicated in osteoporotic phenotypes, bone loss, and fracture risk. One of the major cellular defenses against heightened oxidative stress is mediated by nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), a master transcription factor that regulates induction of antioxidant gene expression and phase II antioxidant enzymes. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that loss of functional Nrf2 increases radiation-induced bone loss. We irradiated (single dose, 20Gy) the hindlegs of age- and sex-matched Nrf2(+/+) and Nrf2(-/-) mice. After 1 month, microCT analysis and histology revealed a drastic overall decrease in the bone volume after irradiation of mice lacking Nrf2. Although radiation exposure led to bone loss in mice with intact Nrf2, it was dramatically enhanced by loss of Nrf2. Furthermore, in the absence of Nrf2, a decrease in osteoblast mineralization was noted in calvarial osteoblasts compared with wild-type controls, and treatment with a common antioxidant, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), was able to rescue the mineralization. As expected, we observed a higher number of osteoclasts in Nrf2(-/-) mice compared to Nrf2(+/+) mice, and after irradiation, the trend remained the same. RT-PCR analysis of calvarial osteoblasts revealed that in the absence of Nrf2, the expression of RANKL was increased after irradiation. Interestingly, RANKL expression was suppressed when the calvarial osteoblasts were treated with NAC before IR exposure. Taken together, our data suggest that loss of Nrf2 leads to heightened oxidative stress and increased susceptibility to radiation-induced bone loss.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bone water (BW) plays a pivotal role in nutrient transport and conferring bone with its viscoelastic mechanical properties. BW is partitioned between the pore spaces of the Haversian and lacuno-canalicular system, and water predominantly bound to the matrix proteins (essentially collagen). The general model of BW is that the former predominantly experiences fast isotropic molecular reorientation, whereas water in the bone matrix undergoes slower anisotropic rotational diffusion. Here, we provide direct evidence for the correctness of this model and show that unambiguous quantification in situ of these two functionally and dynamically different BW fractions is possible. The approach chosen relies on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of deuterium ((2) H) that unambiguously separates and quantifies the two fractions on the basis of their distinguishing microdynamic properties. Twenty-four specimens of the human tibial cortex from 6 donors (3 male, 3 female, ages 27-83 years) were cored and (2) H spectra recorded at 62 MHz (9.4 Tesla) on a Bruker Instruments DMX 400 spectrometer after exchange of native BW with (2) H(2) O. Spectra consisted of a doublet signal resulting from quadrupole interaction of water bound to collagen. Doublet splittings were found to depend on the orientation of the osteonal axis with respect to the magnetic field direction (8.2 and 4.3 kHz for parallel and perpendicular orientation, respectively). In contrast, the isotropically reorienting pore-resident water yielded a single resonance line superimposed on the doublet. Nulling of the singlet resonance allowed separation of the two fractions. The results indicate that in human cortical bone 60% to 80% of detectable BW is collagen-bound. Porosity determined as the difference between total BW and collagen bound water fraction was found to strongly parallel micro-computed tomography (µCT)-based measurements (R(2) = 0.91). Our method provides means for direct validation of emerging relaxation-based measurements of cortical bone porosity by proton MRI.
Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
The orthotopic murine osteosarcoma model is an excellent representation of the human condition as mice develop rapid growth of 'primary' tumor with subsequent lung metastasis. Currently, monitoring tumor growth relies on measuring pulmonary metastases occurring four weeks post injection. Studies show that amputation of the tumor-bearing limb is required before pulmonary metastases are detectable due to rapid growth causing morbidity. Thus, a method measuring 'primary' tumor growth independent of metastasis is required. We hypothesized that serial radiography would allow for longitudinal quantification of 'primary' osteosarcoma growth and explored this idea by utilizing the tibial orthotopic model. Tumor growth was monitored weekly by radiography and calipers, and results were compared with µCT and histology. We found that radiographs demonstrate extra and intra-osseous tumor growth by displaying lytic and blastic lesions and the surrounding radio-opaque area enlarged significantly (p < 0.0001) allowing for quantification. Additionally, radiographs proved more precise than indirect caliper measurements (intra-observer error ±6.64%: inter-observer error ±15.84%). Therefore, we determined that radiography provides accurate, longitudinal quantification of 'primary' osteosarcoma tumor that can be performed serially in the same mouse, does not require introduction of bioluminescence to the host or cell, and is more precise than the current caliper method.
Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.
Previous studies show that transient increases in both blood flow and magnetic resonance image signal intensity (SI) occur in human muscle after brief, single contractions, and that the SI increases are threefold larger in physically active compared with sedentary subjects. This study examined the relationship between these transient changes by measuring anterior tibial artery flow (Doppler ultrasound), anterior muscle SI (3T, one-shot echo-planar images, TR/TE = 1,000/35), and muscle blood volume and hemoglobin saturation [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)] in the same subjects after 1-s-duration maximum isometric ankle dorsiflexion contractions. Arterial flow increased to a peak 5.9 ± 0.7-fold above rest (SE, n = 11, range 2.6-10.2) within 7 s and muscle SI increased to a peak 2.7 ± 0.6% (range 0.0-6.0%) above rest within 12 s after the contractions. The peak postcontractile SI change was significantly correlated with both peak postcontractile flow (r = 0.61, n = 11) and with subject activity level (r = 0.63, n = 10) estimated from 7-day accelerometer recordings. In a subset of 7 subjects in which NIRS data acquisition was successful, the peak magnitude of the postcontractile SI change agreed well with SI calculated from the NIRS blood volume and saturation changes (r = 0.80, slope = 1.02, intercept = 0.16), confirming the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) mechanism underlying the SI change. The magnitudes of postcontractile changes in blood saturation and SI were reproduced by a simple one-compartment muscle vascular model that incorporated the observed pattern of postcontractile flow, and which assumed muscle O(2) consumption peaks within 2 s after a brief contraction. The results show that muscle postcontractile BOLD SI changes depend critically on the balance between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption, both of which can be altered by chronic physical activity.
The fracture resistance of bone arises from the composition, orientation, and distribution of the primary constituents at each hierarchical level of organization. Therefore, to establish the relevance of Raman spectroscopy (RS) in identifying differences between strong or tough bone and weak or brittle bone, we investigated whether Raman-derived properties could explain the variance in biomechanical properties at both the whole bone and the tissue-level, and do so independently of traditional measurements of mineralization. We harvested femurs from wild-type mice and mice lacking matrix metalloproteinase 2 because the mutant mice have a known reduction in mineralization. Next, RS quantified compositional properties directly from the intact diaphysis followed by micro-computed tomography to quantify mineralization density (Ct.TMD). Correlations were then tested for significance between these properties and the biomechanical properties as determined by the three-point bending test on the same femurs. Harvested tibia were embedded in plastic, sectioned transversely, and polished in order to acquire average Raman properties per specimen that were then correlated with average nanoindentation properties per specimen. Dividing the ν(1) phosphate by the proline peak intensity provided the strongest correlation between the mineral-to-collagen ratio and the biomechanical properties (whole bone modulus, strength, and post-yield deflection plus nanoindentation modulus). Moreover, the linear combination of ν(1) phosphate/proline and Ct.TMD provided the best explanation of the variance in strength between the genotypes, and it alone was the best explanatory variable for brittleness. Causal relationships between Raman and fracture resistance need to be investigated, but Raman has the potential to assess fracture risk.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The majority of breast cancer and prostate cancer patients with metastatic disease will go on to develop bone metastases, which contribute largely to the patient's morbidity and mortality. Numerous small animal models of cancer metastasis to bone have been developed to study tumor-induced bone destruction, but the advancement of imaging modalities utilized for these models has lagged significantly behind clinical imaging. Therefore, there is a significant need for improvements to live small animal imaging, particularly when obtaining high-resolution images for longitudinal quantitative analyses. Recently, live animal micro-computed tomography (μCT) has gained popularity due to its ability to obtain high-resolution 3-dimensional images. However, the utility of μCT in bone metastasis models has been limited to end-point analyses due to off-target radiation effects on tumor cells. We hypothesized that live animal in vivo μCT can be utilized to perform reproducible and quantitative longitudinal analyses of bone volume in tumor-bearing mice, particularly in a drug treatment model of breast cancer metastasis to bone. To test this hypothesis, we utilized the MDA-MB-231 osteolytic breast cancer model in which the tumor cells are inoculated directly into the tibia of athymic nude mice and imaged mice weekly by Faxitron (radiography), Imtek μCT (in vivo), and Maestro (GFP-imaging). Exvivo μCT and histology were performed at end point for validation. After establishing a high-resolution scanning protocol for the Imtek CT, we determined whether clear, measurable differences in bone volume were detectable in mice undergoing bisphosphonate drug treatments. We found that in vivo μCT could be used to obtain quantifiable and longitudinal images of the progression of bone destruction over time without altering tumor cell growth. In addition, we found that we could detect lesions as early as week 1 and that this approach could be used to monitor the effect of drug treatment on bone. Taken together, these data indicate that in vivo μCT is an effective and reproducible method for longitudinal monitoring of tumor-associated bone destruction in mouse models of tumor-induced bone disease.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In megaprostheses, the tibial component is rarely a source of failure. The evolution of these implants has followed standard arthroplasty trends moving from majority use of all-polyethylene tibias (APT) to high volume use of metal-backed tibial (MBT) components. We report the results of 72 endoprostheses using either MBT (n = 42) or APT (n = 30) implanted between 1994 and 2006. Failures of the implant related to the tibial component were isolated, and 5-year survival of the tibial implant of the MBT cohort was 94%, and for the APT cohort, 87% (P = .39). The difference in tibial component failures between the 2 groups was not statistically significant (Pearson χ(2) = 0.1535, P = .6952). Revision rates for the entire implant and infection rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.