The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
BACKGROUND - Soy and some of its constituents, such as isoflavones, have been shown to affect the inflammatory process in animal studies. The association between soy food intake and inflammatory markers has not been evaluated adequately in humans.
OBJECTIVE - Our aim was to evaluate whether higher intake of soy foods was inversely associated with inflammatory markers in 1,005 middle-aged Chinese women.
DESIGN - In this cross-sectional study, dietary intake of soy foods was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire and by a 24-hour recall when biospecimens were procured. A general linear model was used to estimate the geometric means of selected inflammatory markers, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), soluble IL-6 receptor, soluble GP130, soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2, and C-reactive protein, across categories of soy food intake after adjusting for age, lifestyle and dietary factors, and history of infectious or inflammation-related diseases.
RESULTS - We found that multivariable-adjusted geometric mean concentrations of IL-6 and TNFα were inversely associated with quintiles of soy food intake, with a difference between the highest and lowest quintiles of 25.5% for IL-6 (P for trend=0.008) and 14% for TNFα (P for trend=0.04). Similar inverse associations were found for TNFα (P for trend=0.003), soluble TNF receptor 1 (P for trend=0.01), soluble TNF receptor 2 (P for trend=0.02), IL-1β (P for trend=0.05), and IL-6 (P for trend=0.04) when soy food consumption was assessed by the frequency of consumption in the preceding 24 hours. No significant associations were found for other markers studied.
CONCLUSIONS - This study suggests that soy food consumption is related to lower circulating levels of IL-6, TNFα, and soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2 in Chinese women.
Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Soy isoflavones have antiestrogenic and anticancer properties but also possess estrogen-like properties, which has raised concern about soy food consumption among breast cancer survivors.
OBJECTIVE - We prospectively evaluated the association between postdiagnosis soy food consumption and breast cancer outcomes among US and Chinese women by using data from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project.
DESIGN - The analysis included 9514 breast cancer survivors with a diagnosis of invasive breast cancer between 1991 and 2006 from 2 US cohorts and 1 Chinese cohort. Soy isoflavone intake (mg/d) was measured with validated food-frequency questionnaires. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using delayed-entry Cox regression models, adjusted for sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors.
RESULTS - After a mean follow-up of 7.4 y, we identified 1171 total deaths (881 from breast cancer) and 1348 recurrences. Despite large differences in soy isoflavone intake by country, isoflavone consumption was inversely associated with recurrence among both US and Chinese women, regardless of whether data were analyzed separately by country or combined. No heterogeneity was observed. In the pooled analysis, consumption of ≥10 mg isoflavones/d was associated with a nonsignificant reduced risk of all-cause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.10) and breast cancer-specific (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.07) mortality and a statistically significant reduced risk of recurrence (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.92).
CONCLUSION - In this large study of combined data on US and Chinese women, postdiagnosis soy food consumption of ≥10 mg isoflavones/d was associated with a nonsignificant reduced risk of breast cancer-specific mortality and a statistically significant reduced risk of recurrence.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS - Diet may play an important role in the development of hyperuricemia and gout. However, the association between dietary factors and hyperuricemia remains unclear, and few studies have investigated direct links between food intake and hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between high purine-content foods and protein intake with the prevalence of hyperuricemia by using data from a cross-sectional study of 3978 men aged 40-74 yrs living in Shanghai, China.
METHODS AND RESULTS - Hyperuricemia was defined as blood uric acid level >7.0 mg/dl. One quarter of this population had hyperuricemia. Dietary information was collected by using a food frequency questionnaire. We collected information on anthropometric measurements and lifestyle factors and other potential confounding factors and disease history via interviews. Total protein consumption was not associated with hyperuricemia. We found a positive association between protein from animal sources and prevalence of hyperuricemia and an inverse association between protein from plant sources and hyperuricemia. However, these associations failed to reach significance in mutually adjusted analysis. Seafood intake was associated with higher prevalence of hyperuricemia. The ORs for quintiles of seafood intake (including fish and shellfish) were 1.00, 1.49, 1.35, 1.34, and 1.56 (p for trend: 0.01). An inverse association approaching significance between soy food consumption and hyperuricemia was observed (ORs: 1.00, 0.90, 0.70, 0.89, and 0.77 for quintiles of intake; p for trend: 0.07). No associations between consumption of purine-rich vegetables or meat and prevalence of hyperuricemia were observed.
CONCLUSIONS - Our data suggest a direct association between seafood consumption and hyperuricemia and an inverse association between consumption of soy food and hyperuricemia among middle-aged, Chinese men.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
It has been suggested that soy food and its components may relieve menopausal symptoms (MPS) including hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness in healthy women. However, little is known about the effect of soy food intake on MPS in women with breast cancer. We examined associations of occurrence of MPS with soy food intake in 4,842 Chinese women aged 20-75 years who had non-metastatic breast cancer and had not used hormone replacement therapy. MPS were assessed at 6 and 36 months after cancer diagnosis using a standardized questionnaire, and associations with soy food intake were evaluated in multivariate regression analyses. Daily soy food intake was assessed at 6 months postdiagnosis and over the first 36 months postdiagnosis using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The prevalence of MPS was 56% at 6 months and 63% at 36 months postdiagnosis with the hotflash being the most common MPS (~44-55%). Hot flashes occurred mainly in premenopausal breast cancer patients who were in the highest quartile of isoflavone intake at 6 months postdiagnosis (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.98-1.59) compared with the lowest quartile. This association was stronger at 36 months postdiagnosis (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.02-2.48). We found no significant associations for any MPS, night sweats, or vaginal dryness. Neither tamoxifen use nor BMI modified the association between MPS and isoflavone intake. There was no evidence that soy food consumption reduced MPS among breast cancer patients. High soy intake may increase the prevalence of hotflashes among premenopausal patients. Our study suggests that soy acts as an estrogen antagonist in breast cancer patients.
BACKGROUND - Soy food is a rich source of isoflavones--a class of phytoestrogens that has both antiestrogenic and anticarcinogenic properties.
OBJECTIVE - The objective was to evaluate the association of adolescent and adult soy food intake with breast cancer risk in a cohort of 73,223 Chinese women who participated in the Shanghai Women's Health Study.
DESIGN - A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess usual dietary intake during adulthood and adolescence. After a mean follow-up of 7.4 y, 592 incident cases of breast cancer were identified for longitudinal analyses by using Cox regressions.
RESULTS - Adult soy food consumption, measured either by soy protein or isoflavone intake, was inversely associated with the risk of premenopausal breast cancer, and the association was highly statistically significant (P for trend < 0.001). The multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) for the upper intake quintile compared with the lowest quintile were 0.41 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.70) for soy protein intake and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.73) for isoflavone intake. High intake of soy foods during adolescence was also associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.97). Women who consumed a high amount of soy foods consistently during adolescence and adulthood had a substantially reduced risk of breast cancer. No significant association with soy food consumption was found for postmenopausal breast cancer.
CONCLUSION - This large, population-based, prospective cohort study provides strong evidence of a protective effect of soy food intake against premenopausal breast cancer.
BACKGROUND - Soy and some of its constituents, such as isoflavones, have been shown to have cancer-inhibitory activities in experimental studies. Data from epidemiologic studies linking usual soy food intake with colorectal cancer are limited and inconsistent.
OBJECTIVE - The objective was to investigate whether soy food intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk.
DESIGN - We prospectively examined 68,412 women aged 40-70 y and free of cancer and diabetes at enrollment. Usual soy food intake was assessed at baseline (1997-2000) and reassessed during the first follow-up (2000-2002) through in-person interviews with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We excluded the first year of observation to minimize lifestyle changes related to preclinical disease.
RESULTS - During a mean follow-up of 6.4 y, 321 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, total soy food intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Each 5-g/d increment in intake of soy foods as assessed by dry weight [equivalent to approximately 1 oz (28.35 g) tofu/d] was associated with an 8% reduction in risk (95% CI: 3%, 14%). Women in the highest tertile of intake had a multivariate relative risk of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.90) compared with those in the lowest tertile (P for trend = 0.008). This inverse association was primarily confined to postmenopausal women. Similar results were also found for intakes of soy protein and isoflavones.
CONCLUSION - This prospective study suggests that consumption of soy foods may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women.
We evaluated the interactive effect of polymorphisms in the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) gene with soy isoflavones, tea consumption, and dietary fiber on endometrial cancer risk in a population-based, case-control study of 1,199 endometrial cancer patients and 1,212 controls. Genotyping of polymorphisms was performed by using TaqMan (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) assays (rs6259) or the Affymetrix MegAllele Targeted Genotyping System (Affymetrix, Inc., US) (rs13894, rs858521, and rs2955617). Dietary information was obtained using a validated food frequency questionnaire. A logistic regression model was employed to compute adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We found that the Asp(327)Asn (rs6259) polymorphism was associated with decreased risk of endometrial cancer, particularly among postmenopausal women (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.62-1.00). This single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) modified associations of soy isoflavones and tea consumption but not fiber intake with endometrial cancer, with the inverse association of soy intake and tea consumption being more evident for those with the Asp/Asp genotype of the SHBG gene at Asp(327)Asn (rs6259), particularly premenopausal women (P(interaction) = 0.06 and 0.02, respectively, for soy isoflavones and tea intake). This study suggests that gene-diet interaction may play an important role in the etiology of endometrial cancer risk.
Estrogen exposures play a critical role in the development of endometrial cancer. Genetic variation in the estrogen metabolism UGT1A1 gene may modify the effect of estrogenic exposures on endometrial cancer risk. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based case-control study of 1,047 endometrial cancer cases and 1,035 controls who completed an in-person interview and were genotyped for the UGT1A1 polymorphisms rs2070959 (A/G), rs887829 (G/A), and rs8175347 (6/7 TA repeats). Estrogen exposure-related factors evaluated include menstrual characteristics, oral contraceptive use, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and soy food intake. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The homozygote variant genotype (G/G) of the rs2070959 polymorphism was significantly associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer (odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.8). No significant associations between endometrial cancer risk and genotype were seen for the rs887829 and rs8175347 polymorphisms. Analysis of the joint effects of genotype and markers of estrogen exposure found the lowest risk of endometrial cancer among those with the homozygous variant genotype of the rs2070959 polymorphism and who were postmenopausal, had low body mass index, and had low soy food intake, although a test for multiplicative interaction was not significant. Taken together, these data suggest that the G/G genotype (rs2070959) in the UGT1A1 gene may decrease the risk of endometrial cancer and that this effect is most evident among women with low levels of endogenous estrogen exposure or with low soy food intake.
BACKGROUND - It has been postulated that a diet high in legumes may be beneficial for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). However, data linking type 2 DM risk and legume intake are limited.
OBJECTIVE - The objective of the study was to examine the association between legume and soy food consumption and self-reported type 2 DM.
DESIGN - The study was conducted in a population-based prospective cohort of middle-aged Chinese women. We followed 64,227 women with no history of type 2 DM, cancer, or cardiovascular disease at study recruitment for an average of 4.6 y. Participants completed in-person interviews that collected information on diabetes risk factors, including dietary intake and physical activity in adulthood. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire at the baseline survey and at the first follow-up survey administered 2-3 y after study recruitment.
RESULTS - We observed an inverse association between quintiles of total legume intake and 3 mutually exclusive legume groups (peanuts, soybeans, and other legumes) and type 2 DM incidence. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk of type 2 DM for the upper quintile compared with the lower quintile was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.74) for total legumes and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.62) for soybeans. The association between soy products (other than soy milk) and soy protein consumption (protein derived from soy beans and their products) with type 2 DM was not significant.
CONCLUSIONS - Consumption of legumes, soybeans in particular, was inversely associated with the risk type 2 DM.
BACKGROUND - In-vitro studies have found that soy isoflavones can inhibit the activity of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I, a key enzyme in catalyzing estrone (E1), to the biologically more active estradiol (E2).
OBJECTIVE - We hypothesized that soy food consumption may interact with polymorphisms in the 17beta-HSD1 gene in the development of endometrial cancer and evaluated this hypothesis in the Shanghai Endometrial Cancer Study.
METHODS - Shanghai Endometrial Cancer Study is a population-based case-control study conducted among Chinese women in Shanghai. This study consisted of 1204 incident endometrial cancer cases diagnosed between 30 and 69 years of age and 1212 age frequency-matched community controls recruited from 1997 to 2003. Overall participation rates were 82.8% for cases and 74.4% for controls, whereas the DNA collection rates were 95.1% for cases and 94.2% for controls.
RESULTS - We found that women carrying at least one A allele of the rs605059 polymorphism had a significant 18% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared with those without an A allele, and the association was primarily restricted to premenopausal women. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.65 (0.47-0.88) for premenopausal women with at least one A allele versus those without an A allele. We also found that among premenopausal women soy isoflavone intake significantly interacted with the rs605059 genotype in relation to endometrial cancer and that the inverse association between soy isoflavone intake and endometrial cancer only appeared among those with at least one A allele of the rs605059 polymorphism. Among postmenopausal women, the association of soy isoflavone intake with endometrial cancer did not differ by 17beta-HSD1 genotypes. We did not find that the rs2676530 polymorphism was significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk.
CONCLUSIONS - Our results suggest that soy consumption may interact with polymorphisms in the 17beta-HSD1 gene in relation to endometrial cancer risk. Further studies are warranted to confirm our results.