The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Little research has examined the association of health literacy and numeracy with patients' preferred involvement in the problem-solving and decision-making process in the hospital. Using a sample of 1,249 patients hospitalized with cardiovascular disease from the Vanderbilt Inpatient Cohort Study (VICS), we assessed patients' preferred level of involvement using responses to two scenarios of differing symptom severity from the Problem-Solving Decision-Making Scale. Using multivariable modeling, we determined the relationship of health literacy, subjective numeracy, and other patient characteristics with preferences for involvement in decisions, and how this differed by scenario. The authors found that patients with higher levels of health literacy desired more participation in the problem-solving and decision-making process, as did patients with higher subjective numeracy skills, greater educational attainment, female gender, less perceived social support, or greater health care system distrust (p<.05 for each predictor in multivariable models). Patients also preferred to participate more in the decision-making process when the hypothetical symptom they were experiencing was less severe (i.e., they deferred more to their physician when the hypothetical symptom was more severe). These findings underscore the role that patient characteristics, especially health literacy and numeracy, play in decisional preferences among hospitalized patients.
OBJECTIVE - To examine the association of patient- and medication-related factors with postdischarge medication errors.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - The Vanderbilt Inpatient Cohort Study includes adults hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes and/or acute decompensated heart failure. We measured health literacy, subjective numeracy, marital status, cognition, social support, educational attainment, income, depression, global health status, and medication adherence in patients enrolled from October 1, 2011, through August 31, 2012. We used binomial logistic regression to determine predictors of discordance between the discharge medication list and the patient-reported list during postdischarge medication review.
RESULTS - Among 471 patients (mean age, 59 years), the mean total number of medications reported was 12, and 79 patients (16.8%) had inadequate or marginal health literacy. A total of 242 patients (51.4%) were taking 1 or more discordant medication (ie, appeared on either the discharge list or patient-reported list but not both), 129 (27.4%) failed to report a medication on their discharge list, and 168 (35.7%) reported a medication not on their discharge list. In addition, 279 participants (59.2%) had a misunderstanding in indication, dose, or frequency in a cardiac medication. In multivariable analyses, higher subjective numeracy (odds ratio [OR], 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98) was associated with lower odds of having discordant medications. For cardiac medications, participants with higher health literacy (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74-0.95), with higher subjective numeracy (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63-0.95), and who were female (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.46-0.78) had lower odds of misunderstandings in indication, dose, or frequency.
CONCLUSION - Medication errors are present in approximately half of patients after hospital discharge and are more common among patients with lower numeracy or health literacy.
Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - The period following hospital discharge is a vulnerable time for patients when errors and poorly coordinated care are common. Suboptimal care transitions for patients admitted with cardiovascular conditions can contribute to readmission and other adverse health outcomes. Little research has examined the role of health literacy and other social determinants of health in predicting post-discharge outcomes.
METHODS - The Vanderbilt Inpatient Cohort Study (VICS), funded by the National Institutes of Health, is a prospective longitudinal study of 3,000 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes or acute decompensated heart failure. Enrollment began in October 2011 and is planned through October 2015. During hospitalization, a set of validated demographic, cognitive, psychological, social, behavioral, and functional measures are administered, and health status and comorbidities are assessed. Patients are interviewed by phone during the first week after discharge to assess the quality of hospital discharge, communication, and initial medication management. At approximately 30 and 90 days post-discharge, interviewers collect additional data on medication adherence, social support, functional status, quality of life, and health care utilization. Mortality will be determined with up to 3.5 years follow-up. Statistical models will examine hypothesized relationships of health literacy and other social determinants on medication management, functional status, quality of life, utilization, and mortality. In this paper, we describe recruitment, eligibility, follow-up, data collection, and analysis plans for VICS, as well as characteristics of the accruing patient cohort.
DISCUSSION - This research will enhance understanding of how health literacy and other patient factors affect the quality of care transitions and outcomes after hospitalization. Findings will help inform the design of interventions to improve care transitions and post-discharge outcomes.
Despite the important contribution increasing physical activity levels may play in reducing chronic disease morbidity and mortality, there is a paucity of interventions and research indicating how to improve physical activity levels in African American men. Men on the Move was a pilot study to increase African American men's levels of physical activity by improving access to age and ability-appropriate, male-focused physical activity opportunities and facilitating access to social support from male peers. Forty-one African American men ages 35 to 70 enrolled (mean age = 53.8). Groups of 5 to 10 men met once a week with a certified personal trainer for 10 weeks. Each meeting addressed barriers to physical activity, provided men with community resources, and incorporated activities that promoted flexibility, strength, balance, and conditioning. Improvements (p < .05) were detected for the following outcome measures: perceived self-efficacy to sustain physical activity, endurance, overall health status, and stress level. Physiological and fitness outcome measures improved, although not to significant levels. Whereas 40% of the men met the recommendation of 150 minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity weekly at baseline, 68% of the men met this recommendation by the end of the project. These positive results attest to the feasibility of successfully engaging middle-aged and older African American men in a physical activity intervention, and our findings demonstrate the initial efficacy of this intervention approach. More research is needed that includes a more intensive intervention and one that helps motivate men to be physically active outside of the structured, small-group sessions.
The associations between specific intra- and inter-personal psychosocial factors and dietary patterns were explored in a healthy, working adult sample of university and health center employees (N = 640) who were enrolled in a prospective predictive health study. Participants had a mean age of 48 (SD = 11) years and were 67% women and 30% minority. Baseline psychosocial measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and family functioning were examined for their relationships with three diet quality indices-AHEI, DASH, and the Mediterranean. Dietary intake was of moderate quality in this high-income, well-educated, psychosocially healthy population. Social support was positively associated with better diet quality for all three indices (p < .01). Further research should focus on socio-environmental factors associated with diet quality.
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Clinical decision making in localized prostate cancer is a complicated, multidimensional process in which men often consider their own personal preferences, the advice of their healthcare providers, the opinions of their family and friends, and outside information sources. They synthesize all of this within the framework of their own unique socioeconomic situation, their social support network, and their preconceived impressions of their health and the health-care system. This is particularly germane when considering factors that influence a patient's acceptance of and adherence to active surveillance (AS). We propose a conceptual framework based on a previously described systematic-heuristic theoretical model of decision making in this setting. We identify a number of factors that patients systematically prioritize when considering AS. These include desire for cancer control or cure, age at diagnosis, and concern regarding side effects of treatment. The way patients value these factors and effectively decide on treatment is influenced by more heuristic factors, including physician recommendation, opinion of friends and family members, and overall decision uncertainty. These heuristic factors also play an important role in adherence when a patient elects AS. Finally, some of the factors, particularly the heuristic ones, are potentially modifiable and may serve as targets for future interventions to increase acceptance of and adherence to AS.
OBJECTIVE - This systematic review aimed to evaluate the level of evidence of contemporary peer-reviewed literature published from 2004 to 2011 on the psychosocial impact of lymphedema.
METHODS - Eleven electronic databases were searched and 1311 articles retrieved; 23 met inclusion criteria. Twelve articles utilized qualitative methodology and 11 used quantitative methodology. An established quality assessment tool was used to assess the quality of the included studies.
RESULTS - The overall quality of the 23 included studies was adequate. A critical limitation of current literature is the lack of conceptual or operational definitions for the concept of psychosocial impact. Quantitative studies showed statistically significant poorer social well-being in persons with lymphedema, including perceptions related to body image, appearance, sexuality, and social barriers. No statistically significant differences were found between persons with and without lymphedema in the domains of emotional well-being (happy or sad) and psychological distress (depression and anxiety). All 12 of the qualitative studies consistently described negative psychological impact (negative self-identity, emotional disturbance, and psychological distress) and negative social impact (marginalization, financial burden, perceived diminished sexuality, social isolation, perceived social abandonment, public insensitivity, and non-supportive work environment). Factors associated with psychosocial impact were also identified.
CONCLUSIONS - Lymphedema has a negative psychosocial impact on affected individuals. The current review sheds light on the conceptualization and operationalization of the definitions of psychosocial impact with respect to lymphedema. Development of a lymphedema-specific instrument is needed to better characterize the impact of lymphedema and to examine the factors contributing to these outcomes in cancer and non-cancer-related populations.
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Currently, more than 40000 patients undergo allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) annually throughout the world, and the numbers are increasing rapidly. Long-term survival after allogeneic-HSCT (allo-HSCT) has also improved significantly since its inception over 40 years ago due to improved supportive care and early recognition of long-term complications. In long-term follow-up after transplantation, the focus of care moves beyond cure of the original disease to late effects and quality of life. Nearly one-fourth of the long-term survivors are likely to have chronic consequences of HSCT, which require frequent help by caregivers, particularly informal caregivers such as spouses, partners or children. The physical and psychosocial consequences for patients undergoing HSCT have been extensively reported. There has, however, been far less investigation into the long-term follow-up of caregivers of HSCT recipients. This article provides an overview on addressing caregiver issues after HSCT. The rapidly growing population of long-term HSCT survivors creates an obligation not only to educate patients and physicians about the late complications observed in patients but also to follow up caregivers for their psychosocial support needs.
PURPOSE - The purpose of this review is to describe the prevalence of psychological distress in parents of children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), the relationship between parental psychological distress and health outcomes, and parents' psychological experience of having a child with T1DM. Clinical and research implications are presented.
METHOD - A systematic mixed-studies review was undertaken to review the quantitative and qualitative research on the parental experience of having a child with T1DM. A total of 34 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review.
RESULTS - The prevalence of parental psychological distress across all studies ranged from 10% to 74%, with an average of 33.5% of parents reporting distress at diagnosis and 19% of parents reporting distress 1 to 4 years after diagnosis. Parental psychological distress in parents of children with T1DM, regardless of how it was defined, was associated with higher child self-report of stress and depressive symptoms, more problematic child behavior, and lower child self-report of quality of life. Parental psychological distress also had negative effects on diabetes management. Themes of the qualitative synthesis indicated that parents perceived T1DM as a difficult diagnosis that contributed to significant family disruption. Adjustment occurred over time; however, ongoing stress was experienced.
CONCLUSIONS - Screening for psychological distress in parents of children with T1DM is indicated, and preventive interventions are needed.
OBJECTIVE - We used a mixed-methods approach to explore the relationships between participants' perceptions of family members' diabetes self-care knowledge, family members' diabetes-specific supportive and nonsupportive behaviors, and participants' medication adherence and glycemic control (A1C).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Adults with type 2 diabetes participated in focus group sessions that discussed barriers and facilitators to diabetes management (n = 45) and/or completed surveys (n = 61) to collect demographic information, measures of diabetes medication adherence, perceptions of family members' diabetes self-care knowledge, and perceptions of family members' diabetes-specific supportive and nonsupportive behaviors. Most recent A1C was extracted from the medical record.
RESULTS - Perceiving family members were more knowledgeable about diabetes was associated with perceiving family members performed more diabetes-specific supportive behaviors, but was not associated with perceiving family members performed fewer nonsupportive behaviors. Perceiving family members performed more nonsupportive behaviors was associated with being less adherent to one's diabetes medication regimen, and being less adherent was associated with worse glycemic control. In focus groups, participants discussed family member support and gave examples of family members who were informed about diabetes but performed sabotaging or nonsupportive behaviors.
CONCLUSIONS - Participant reports of family members' nonsupportive behaviors were associated with being less adherent to one's diabetes medication regimen. Participants emphasized the importance of instrumental help for diabetes self-care behaviors and reported that nonsupportive family behaviors sabotaged their efforts to perform these behaviors. Interventions should inform family members about diabetes and enhance their motivation and behavioral skills around not interfering with one's diabetes self-care efforts.