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A critical period in establishing pregnancy occurs after the onset of implantation but before placental development. Evidence strongly suggests that abnormalities occurring during this period can result in pregnancy termination or in pre-eclampsia; the latter may lead to small-for-gestational-weight offspring that are likely to be unhealthy. Clearly, events occurring in the endometrium during the implantation process are crucial for proper fetal development and for optimal offspring health. In several mammalian species bi-directional communication between the conceptus and endometrium during implantation is required for successful pregnancy. Although different implantation and placentation modes occur in different mammalian species, common aspects of this bi-directional signaling may exist. The molecular signals from the trophoblast cells of the conceptus, which direct endometrial changes during implantation progression, are well known in some nonrodent species. Currently, we know little about such signaling in rodents during implantation progression, when the endometrium undergoes decidualization. This review focuses on data that support the hypothesis that paracrine signals from the rodent conceptus influence decidualization. Where possible, these findings are compared and contrasted with information currently known in other species that exhibit different implantation modes.
(c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
High dietary fat intake leads to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and this represents a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in the disease process, but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Here we show that in skeletal muscle of both rodents and humans, a diet high in fat increases the H(2)O(2)-emitting potential of mitochondria, shifts the cellular redox environment to a more oxidized state, and decreases the redox-buffering capacity in the absence of any change in mitochondrial respiratory function. Furthermore, we show that attenuating mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission, either by treating rats with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant or by genetically engineering the overexpression of catalase in mitochondria of muscle in mice, completely preserves insulin sensitivity despite a high-fat diet. These findings place the etiology of insulin resistance in the context of mitochondrial bioenergetics by demonstrating that mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission serves as both a gauge of energy balance and a regulator of cellular redox environment, linking intracellular metabolic balance to the control of insulin sensitivity.
1, N (2)-Propanodeoxyguanosine (PdG) is a stable structural analogue for the 3-(2'-deoxy-beta- d- erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-alpha]purin-10(3 H)-one (M 1dG) adduct derived from exposure of DNA to base propenals and to malondialdehyde. The structures of ternary polymerase-DNA-dNTP complexes for three template-primer DNA sequences were determined, with the Y-family Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4), at resolutions between 2.4 and 2.7 A. Three template 18-mer-primer 13-mer sequences, 5'-d(TCACXAAATCCTTCCCCC)-3'.5'-d(GGGGGAAGGATTT)-3' (template I), 5'-d(TCACXGAATCCTTCCCCC)-3'.5'-d(GGGGGAAGGATTC)-3' (template II), and 5'-d(TCATXGAATCCTTCCCCC)-3'.5'-d(GGGGGAAGGATTC)-3' (template III), where X is PdG, were analyzed. With templates I and II, diffracting ternary complexes including dGTP were obtained. The dGTP did not pair with PdG, but instead with the 5'-neighboring template dC, utilizing Watson-Crick geometry. Replication bypass experiments with the template-primer 5'-TCACXAAATCCTTACGAGCATCGCCCCC-3'.5'-GGGGGCGATGCTCGTAAGGATTT-3', where X is PdG, which includes PdG in the 5'-CXA-3' template sequence as in template I, showed that the Dpo4 polymerase inserted dGTP and dATP when challenged by the PdG adduct. For template III, in which the template sequence was 5'-TXG-3', a diffracting ternary complex including dATP was obtained. The dATP did not pair with PdG, but instead with the 5'-neighboring T, utilizing Watson-Crick geometry. Thus, all three ternary complexes were of the "type II" structure described for ternary complexes with native DNA [Ling, H., Boudsocq, F., Woodgate, R., and Yang, W. (2001) Cell 107, 91-102]. The PdG adduct remained in the anti conformation about the glycosyl bond in each of these threee ternary complexes. These results provide insight into how -1 frameshift mutations might be generated for the PdG adduct, a structural model for the exocylic M 1dG adduct formed by malondialdehyde.
Members of the postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95)/synapse-associated protein-90 (SAP90) family of scaffolding proteins contain a common set of modular protein interaction motifs including PDZ (postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/zona occludens-1), Src homology 3, and guanylate kinase domains, which regulate signaling and plasticity at excitatory synapses. We report that N-terminal alternative splicing of PSD95 generates an isoform, PSD95beta that contains an additional "L27" motif, which is also present in SAP97. Using yeast two hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrate that this N-terminal L27 domain of PSD-95beta, binds to an L27 domain in the membrane-associated guanylate kinase calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine kinase, and to Hrs, an endosomal ATPase that regulates vesicular trafficking. By transfecting heterologous cells and hippocampal neurons, we find that interactions with the L27 domain regulate synaptic clustering of PSD95beta. Disrupting Hrs-regulated early endosomal sorting in hippocampal neurons selectively blocks synaptic clustering of PSD95beta but does not interfere with trafficking of the palmitoylated isoform, PSD95alpha. These studies identify molecular and functional heterogeneity in synaptic PSD95 complexes and reveal critical roles for L27 domain interactions and Hrs regulated vesicular trafficking in postsynaptic protein clustering.
By using a model system for cell transformation mediated by the cooperation of the activated H-ras oncogene and the inactivated p53 tumor suppressor gene, rCop-1 was identified by mRNA differential display as a gene whose expression became lost after cell transformation. Homology analysis indicates that rCop-1 belongs to an emerging cysteine-rich growth regulator family called CCN, which includes connective-tissue growth factor, CYR61, CEF10 (v-src inducible), and the product of the nov proto-oncogene. Unlike the other members of the CCN gene family, rCop-1 is not an immediate-early gene, it lacks the conserved C-terminal domain which was shown to confer both growth-stimulating and heparin-binding activities, and its expression is lost in cells transformed by a variety of mechanisms. Ectopic expression of rCop-1 by retroviral gene transfers led to cell death in a transformation-specific manner. These results suggest that rCop-1 represents a new class of CCN family proteins that have functions opposing those of the previously identified members.
Many in vitro tests have been developed to identify chemicals that can damage cellular DNA or cause mutations, and secondarily to identify potential carcinogens. The test receiving by far the most use and attention has been the Salmonella (SAL) mutagenesis test developed by Ames and colleagues [(1973): Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70:2281-2285; (1975): Mutat Res 31:347-364], because of its initial promise of high qualitative (YES/NO) predictivity for cancer in rodents and, by extension, in humans. In addition to the initial reports of high qualitative predictivity, there was also an early report by Meselson and Russell [in Hiatt HH et al (1977): "Origins of Human Cancer, Book C: Human Risk Assessment," pp 1473-1481] of a quantitative relationship between mutagenic potency measured in SAL and carcinogenic potency measured in rodents, for a small number of chemicals. However, other reports using larger numbers of chemicals have found only very weak correlations. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether mutagenic potency, as measured in a number of different ways, could be used to improve predictivity of carcinogenicity, either qualitatively or quantitatively. To this end, eight measures of SAL mutagenic potency were used. This study firmly establishes that the predictive relationship between mutagenic potency in SAL and rodent carcinogenicity is, at best, weak. When predicting qualitative carcinogenicity, only qualitative mutagenicity is useful; none of the quantitative measures of potency considered improves the carcinogenicity prediction. In fact, when qualitative mutagenicity is forced out of the model, the quantitative measures are still not predictive of carcinogenicity. When predicting quantitative carcinogenicity, several possible methods were considered for summarizing potency over all experiments; however, in all cases, the relationship between mutagenic potency predictors and quantitative carcinogenicity is very weak.