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BACKGROUND - No available treatments slow or halt progression of multiple system atrophy, which is a rare, progressive, fatal neurological disorder. In a mouse model of multiple system atrophy, rifampicin inhibited formation of α-synuclein fibrils, the neuropathological hallmark of the disease. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of rifampicin in patients with multiple system atrophy.
METHODS - In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we recruited participants aged 30-80 years with possible or probable multiple system atrophy from ten US medical centres. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1) via computer-generated permuted block randomisation to rifampicin 300 mg twice daily or matching placebo (50 mg riboflavin capsules), stratified by subtype (parkinsonian vs cerebellar), with a block size of four. The primary outcome was rate of change (slope analysis) from baseline to 12 months in Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS) I score, analysed in all participants with at least one post-baseline measurement. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01287221.
FINDINGS - Between April 22, 2011, and April 19, 2012, we randomly assigned 100 participants (50 to rifampicin and 50 to placebo). Four participants in the rifampicin group and five in the placebo group withdrew from study prematurely. Results of the preplanned interim analysis (n=15 in each group) of the primary endpoint showed that futility criteria had been met, and the trial was stopped (the mean rate of change [slope analysis] of UMSARS I score was 0.62 points [SD 0.85] per month in the rifampicin group vs 0.47 points [0.48] per month in the placebo group; futility p=0.032; efficacy p=0.76). At the time of study termination, 49 participants in the rifampicin group and 50 in the placebo group had follow-up data and were included in the final analysis. The primary endpoint was 0.5 points (SD 0.7) per month for rifampicin and 0.5 points (0.5) per month for placebo (difference 0.0, 95% CI -0.24 to 0.24; p=0.82). Three (6%) of 50 participants in the rifampicin group and 12 (24%) of 50 in the placebo group had one or more serious adverse events; none was thought to be related to treatment.
INTERPRETATION - Our results show that rifampicin does not slow or halt progression of multiple system atrophy. Despite the negative result, the trial does provide information that could be useful in the design of future studies assessing potential disease modifying therapies in patients with multiple system atrophy.
FUNDING - National Institutes of Health, Mayo Clinic Center for Translational Science Activities, and Mayo Funds.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
SETTING - A large randomized controlled trial recently showed that for treating latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in persons at high risk of progression to tuberculosis (TB) disease, a 12-dose regimen of weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid (3HP) administered as directly observed treatment (DOT) can be as effective as 9 months of daily self-administered isoniazid (9H).
OBJECTIVES - To assess the cost-effectiveness of 3HP compared to 9H.
DESIGN - A computational model was designed to simulate individuals with LTBI treated with 9H or 3HP. Costs and health outcomes were estimated to determine the incremental costs per active TB case prevented and per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained by 3HP compared to 9H.
RESULTS - Over a 20-year period, treatment of LTBI with 3HP rather than 9H resulted in 5.2 fewer cases of TB and 25 fewer lost QALYs per 1000 individuals treated. From the health system and societal perspectives, 3HP would cost respectively US$21,525 and $4294 more per TB case prevented, and respectively $4565 and $911 more per QALY gained.
CONCLUSIONS - 3HP may be a cost-effective alternative to 9H, particularly if the cost of rifapentine decreases, the effectiveness of 3HP can be maintained without DOT, and 3HP treatment is limited to those with a high risk of progression to TB disease.
OBJECTIVES - An efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen is preferred for children more than 3 years of age with tuberculosis. However, rifampin, a key component of antituberculosis therapy, induces CYP2B6. An increased dose of efavirenz is recommended in adults weighing more than 50 kg who require rifampin, but there is scant information in children being treated for tuberculosis.
DESIGN - Plasma efavirenz concentrations were compared in 40 children during concomitant treatment for tuberculosis and HIV-1, after stopping rifampicin, and in a control group of children without tuberculosis. Associations with antituberculosis treatment, metabolizer genotype (based on CYP2B6 516G→T, 983T→C, and 15582C→T), weight, and time after dose were evaluated.
RESULTS - Compared to children with extensive metabolizer genotypes, efavirenz concentrations were increased 1.42-fold (95% confidence interval, CI 0.94–2.15) and 2.85-fold (95% CI 1.80–4.52) in children with intermediate and slow metabolizer genotypes, respectively. Concomitant antituberculosis treatment increased efavirenz concentrations 1.49-fold (95% CI 1.10–2.01) in children with slow metabolizer genotypes, but did not affect efavirenz concentrations in extensive or intermediate metabolizer genotypes. After adjustment for dose/kg, each kilogram of weight was associated with a 2.8% (95% CI 0.9–4.7) decrease in efavirenz concentrations. Despite higher milligram per kilogram doses, a higher proportion of children in the lowest weight band (10–13.9 kg) had efavirenz concentrations less than 1.0 mg/l than larger children.
CONCLUSION - Antituberculosis treatment was not associated with reduced efavirenz concentrations in children, which does not support increased efavirenz doses. Children with slow metabolizer genotype have increased efavirenz concentrations during antituberculosis treatment, likely due to isoniazid inhibiting enzymes involved in accessory metabolic pathways for efavirenz.
IMPORTANCE - Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease for which there are limited therapeutic options. This is the first randomized, placebo-controlled study to demonstrate that antimycobacterial therapy reduces lesion diameter and disease severity among patients with chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis.
OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the safety and efficacy of once-daily antimycobacterial therapy on the resolution of chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis lesions.
DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS - A randomized, placebo-controlled, single-masked trial on 30 patients with symptomatic chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis lesions deemed to require therapeutic intervention.
SETTING - A tertiary referral dermatology center in Nashville, Tennessee.
INTERVENTIONS - Participants were randomized to receive either the oral concomitant levofloxacin, ethambutol, azithromycin, and rifampin (CLEAR) regimen or a comparative placebo regimen for 8 weeks with a 180-day follow-up.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES - Participants were monitored for absolute change in lesion diameter and decrease in granuloma burden, if present, on completion of therapy.
OBSERVATIONS - In the intention-to-treat analysis, the CLEAR-treated group had a mean (SD) decrease in lesion diameter of -8.4 (14.0) mm compared with an increase of 0.07 (3.2) mm in the placebo-treated group (P = .05). The CLEAR group had a significant reduction in granuloma burden and experienced a mean (SD) decline of -2.9 (2.5) mm in lesion severity compared with a decline of -0.6 (2.1) mm in the placebo group (P = .02).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE - Antimycobacterial therapy may result in significant reductions in chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis lesion diameter compared with placebo. These observed reductions, associated with a clinically significant improvement in symptoms, were present at the 180-day follow-up period. Transcriptome analysis of sarcoidosis CD4+ T cells revealed reversal of pathways associated with disease severity and enhanced T-cell function following T-cell receptor stimulation.
TRIAL REGISTRATION - clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01074554.
Nine months of daily isoniazid is efficacious in treating latent M. tuberculosis infection, but completion rates are low, limiting treatment effectiveness. In 2011, three important studies were published involving novel regimens for the treatment of latent M. tuberculosis infection. At least 36 months of isoniazid was more effective than 6 months of isoniazid in one study, but not in another-both of which were conducted among tuberculin skin test positive HIV-infected adults living in high tuberculosis incidence settings. Three months of once-weekly isoniazid plus rifapentine or twice-weekly isoniazid plus rifampin (both given under direct observation) resulted in tuberculosis rates similar to those seen with 6 months of isoniazid among HIV-infected persons in high tuberculosis incidence settings. Three months of once-weekly, directly-observed isoniazid plus rifapentine was at least as effective as 9 months of daily isoniazid among predominantly HIV-uninfected persons living in low and medium tuberculosis incidence countries. The 3-month once-weekly isoniazid plus rifapentine regimen demonstrates promise for treatment of latent M. tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected persons.
BACKGROUND - Treatment of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is an essential component of tuberculosis control and elimination. The current standard regimen of isoniazid for 9 months is efficacious but is limited by toxicity and low rates of treatment completion.
METHODS - We conducted an open-label, randomized noninferiority trial comparing 3 months of directly observed once-weekly therapy with rifapentine (900 mg) plus isoniazid (900 mg) (combination-therapy group) with 9 months of self-administered daily isoniazid (300 mg) (isoniazid-only group) in subjects at high risk for tuberculosis. Subjects were enrolled from the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Spain and followed for 33 months. The primary end point was confirmed tuberculosis, and the noninferiority margin was 0.75%.
RESULTS - In the modified intention-to-treat analysis, tuberculosis developed in 7 of 3986 subjects in the combination-therapy group (cumulative rate, 0.19%) and in 15 of 3745 subjects in the isoniazid-only group (cumulative rate, 0.43%), for a difference of 0.24 percentage points. Rates of treatment completion were 82.1% in the combination-therapy group and 69.0% in the isoniazid-only group (P<0.001). Rates of permanent drug discontinuation owing to an adverse event were 4.9% in the combination-therapy group and 3.7% in the isoniazid-only group (P=0.009). Rates of investigator-assessed drug-related hepatotoxicity were 0.4% and 2.7%, respectively (P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS - The use of rifapentine plus isoniazid for 3 months was as effective as 9 months of isoniazid alone in preventing tuberculosis and had a higher treatment-completion rate. Long-term safety monitoring will be important. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; PREVENT TB ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023452.).
The disruption of host-symbiont interactions through the use of antibiotics can help elucidate microbial functions that go beyond short-term nutritional value. Termite gut symbionts have been studied extensively, but little is known about their impact on the termite's reproductive output. Here we describe the effect that the antibiotic rifampin has not only on the gut microbial diversity but also on the longevity, fecundity, and weight of two termite species, Zootermopsis angusticollis and Reticulitermes flavipes. We report three key findings: (i) the antibiotic rifampin, when fed to primary reproductives during the incipient stages of colony foundation, causes a permanent reduction in the diversity of gut bacteria and a transitory effect on the density of the protozoan community; (ii) rifampin treatment reduces oviposition rates of queens, translating into delayed colony growth and ultimately reduced colony fitness; and (iii) the initial dosages of rifampin had severe long-term fitness effects on Z. angusticollis. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the antibiotic-induced perturbation of the microbial community is associated with prolonged reductions in longevity and fecundity. A causal relationship between these changes in the gut microbial population structures and fitness is suggested by the acquisition of opportunistic pathogens and incompetence of the termites to restore a pretreatment, native microbiota. Our results indicate that antibiotic treatment significantly alters the termite's microbiota, reproduction, colony establishment, and ultimately colony growth and development. We discuss the implications for antimicrobials as a new application to the control of termite pest species.
BACKGROUND - Rifampin is the cornerstone of antituberculosis therapy, but induction of hepatic cytochrome P4503A by rifampin markedly lowers HIV protease inhibitor plasma concentrations.
METHODS - This phase 1, open-label, one-arm study was designed to assess pharmacokinetic interactions and safety of atazanavir, ritonavir, and rifampin among 14 evaluable HIV-seronegative volunteers. The study included 3 sequential periods of study drug dosing, with plasma sampling for pharmacokinetic analyses to occur on the last day of each period. During period 1, participants received rifampin 600 mg every 24 hours for 8 days. During period 2, participants continued rifampin 600 mg every 24 hours, and added atazanavir 300 mg and ritonavir 100 mg every 12 hours, to continue for at least 11 days. During period 3, atazanavir was to be increased to 400 mg every 12 hours.
RESULTS - Upon adding atazanavir and ritonavir, the first 3 subjects developed vomiting and transaminase elevations resulting in study drug discontinuation. The study was therefore terminated.
CONCLUSIONS - Coadministration of rifampin with HIV protease inhibitors may not be a viable treatment option if rifampin administration precedes protease inhibitor initiation. Future studies, which explore concomitant HIV protease inhibitors with rifampin must carefully consider the sequence in which drugs are initiated.
The ligand-activated nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) is known to play a role in the regulated expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Recent studies suggest a potential clinically relevant role of PXR in breast cancer. However, the relevant pathway or target genes of PXR in breast cancer biology and progression have not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we show that mRNA expression of organic anion transporter polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2), a transporter capable of mediating the cellular uptake of estrogen metabolites, is nearly 10-fold greater in breast cancer compared with adjacent healthy breast tissues. Immunohistochemistry revealed exclusive expression of OATP1A2 in breast cancer tissue. Interestingly, treatment of breast cancer cells in vitro with the PXR agonist rifampin induced OATP1A2 expression in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner. Consistent with its role as a hormone uptake transporter, induction of OATP1A2 was associated with increased uptake of estrone 3-sulfate. The rifampin response was abrogated after small interfering RNA targeting of PXR. We then identified a PXR response element in the human OATP1A2 promoter, located approximately 5.7 kb upstream of the transcription initiation site. The specificity of PXR-OATP1A2 promoter interaction was confirmed using chromatin immunoprecipitation. Importantly, we used a novel potent and specific antagonist of PXR (A-792611) to show the reversal of the rifampin effect on the cellular uptake of E(1)S. These data provide important new insights into the interplay between a xenobiotic nuclear receptor PXR and OATP1A2 that could contribute to the pathogenesis of breast cancer and may also prove to be heretofore unrecognized targets for breast cancer treatment.
The potent induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 3A isoforms by rifampin complicates therapy for coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We performed an open-label, single-arm study to assess the safety and pharmacokinetic interactions of the HIV protease inhibitor atazanavir coadministered with rifampin. Ten healthy HIV-negative subjects completed pharmacokinetic sampling at steady state while receiving 300 mg atazanavir every 12 h without rifampin (period 1), 300 mg atazanavir every 12 h with 600 mg rifampin every 24 h (period 2), and 400 mg atazanavir every 12 h with 600 mg rifampin every 24 h (period 3). During period 1, the mean concentration of drug in serum at 12 h (C(12 h)) was 811 ng/ml (range, 363 to 2,484 ng/ml) for atazanavir, similar to historic seronegative data for once-daily treatment with 300 mg atazanavir boosted with 100 mg ritonavir. During periods 2 and 3, the mean C(12 h) values for atazanavir were 44 ng/ml (range, <25 to 187 ng/ml) and 113 ng/ml (range, 39 to 260 ng/ml), respectively, well below historic seronegative data for once-daily treatment with 400 mg atazanavir without ritonavir. Although safe and generally well tolerated, 300 mg or 400 mg atazanavir administered every 12 h did not maintain adequate plasma exposure when coadministered with rifampin.