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PURPOSE - Bortezomib, a first-generation proteasome inhibitor, induces an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, which ultimately leads to dysregulation of intracellular Ca(2+) and apoptotic cell death. This study investigated the role of the Ca(2+)-dependent enzyme, calpain, in bortezomib cytotoxicity. A novel therapeutic combination was evaluated in which HIV protease inhibitors were used to block calpain activity and enhance bortezomib cytotoxicity in myeloma cells in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS - Bortezomib-mediated cell death was examined using assays for apoptosis (Annexin V staining), total cell death (trypan blue exclusion), and growth inhibition (MTT). The effects of calpain on bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity were investigated using siRNA knockdown or pharmaceutical inhibitors. Enzyme activity assays and immunofluorescence analysis were used to identify mechanistic effects.
RESULTS - Inhibition of the Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine protease calpain, either by pharmacologic or genetic means, enhances or accelerates bortezomib-induced myeloma cell death. The increase in cell death is not associated with an increase in caspase activity, nor is there evidence of greater inhibition of proteasome activity, suggesting an alternate, calpain-regulated mechanism of bortezomib-induced cell death. Bortezomib initiates an autophagic response in myeloma cells associated with cell survival. Inhibition of calpain subverts the cytoprotective function of autophagy leading to increased bortezomib-mediated cell death. Combination therapy with bortezomib and the calpain-blocking HIV protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, reversed bortezomib resistance and induced near-complete tumor regressions in an SCID mouse xenograft model of myeloma.
AIM - We investigated the relationship between weight change and related factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with liraglutide versus comparator diabetes therapies.
METHODS - Twenty-six-week data from seven phase 3, randomized trials in the liraglutide T2DM development programme were analysed by trial and treatment group: liraglutide (1.2 and 1.8 mg), active comparator and placebo. Outcome measures included proportions of subjects in various weight change categories and their percentage weight change from baseline; impact of body mass index (BMI) and gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs) on weight change and correlation of weight change with change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c).
RESULTS - A number of subjects experienced >5% weight loss during the trials (24.4% liraglutide 1.8 mg and 17.7% liraglutide 1.2 mg; 17.7% exenatide, 10.0% sitagliptin, 3.6-7.0% sulphonylurea, 2.6% thiazolidinedione and 2.6% glargine; 9.9% placebo). More weight loss was seen with liraglutide 1.2 and 1.8 mg than with active comparators except exenatide. Across trials, higher initial BMI was associated with slightly greater weight loss with liraglutide. Mean weight loss increased slightly the longer GI AEs persisted. Although HbA1c reduction was slightly larger in higher weight loss categories across treatments (including placebo), sample sizes were small and no clear correlation could be determined. Liraglutide-treated subjects experienced additional HbA1c reduction beyond that which appeared weight induced; thus, not all HbA1c-lowering effect appears weight mediated.
CONCLUSIONS - The majority of liraglutide-treated T2DM subjects experienced weight loss in this analysis. Weight loss was greater and occurred more in glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist-treated subjects than in active comparator-treated subjects.
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
BACKGROUND - Constitutive activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is associated with poor prognosis. Irinotecan demonstrates single-agent activity in head and neck cancer but activates NF-κB, promoting cell survival and resistance. Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor that inactivates NF-κB.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - We performed a randomized phase II trial of bortezomib on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 and irinotecan on days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle or single-agent bortezomib on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 on a 21-day cycle. The addition of irinotecan to bortezomib was allowed in patients who progressed on bortezomib alone.
RESULTS - The response rate of bortezomib and irinotecan was 13%. One patient had a partial response to bortezomib alone (response rate 3%). No responses were seen in patients with addition of irinotecan at time of progression on bortezomib.
CONCLUSIONS - The bortezomib-based regimens evaluated in this study have minimal activity in recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer.
Published 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Since recent evidence indicates a requirement for epithelial nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling in lung tumorigenesis, we investigated the impact of the NF-κB inhibitor bortezomib on lung tumor promotion and growth. We used an experimental model in which wild-type mice or mice expressing an NF-κB reporter received intraperitoneal urethane (1 g/kg) followed by twice weekly bortezomib (1 mg/kg) during distinct periods of tumor initiation/progression. Mice were serially assessed for lung NF-κB activation, inflammation and carcinogenesis. Short-term proteasome inhibition with bortezomib did not impact tumor formation but retarded the growth of established lung tumors in mice via effects on cell proliferation. In contrast, long-term treatment with bortezomib resulted in significantly increased lung tumor number and size. This tumor-promoting effect of prolonged bortezomib treatment was associated with perpetuation of urethane-induced inflammation and chronic upregulation of interleukin-1β and proinflammatory C-X-C motif chemokine ligands (CXCL) 1 and 2 in the lungs. In addition to airway epithelium, bortezomib inhibited NF-κB in pulmonary macrophages in vivo, presenting a possible mechanism of tumor amplification. In this regard, RAW264.7 macrophages exposed to bortezomib showed increased expression of interleukin-1β, CXCL1 and CXCL2. In conclusion, although short-term bortezomib may exert some beneficial effects, prolonged NF-κB inhibition accelerates chemical lung carcinogenesis by perpetuating carcinogen-induced inflammation. Inhibition of NF-κB in pulmonary macrophages appears to play an important role in this adverse process.
Intensive induction regimen followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) is frequently used to improve outcomes in patients with mantle-cell lymphoma. The comparative impact of conventional vs intensive induction regimen before transplantation is unknown. Forty-eight patients with mantle-cell lymphoma receiving SCT at our institution between January 2000 and December 2010 were included in this study. At the time of initial presentation, 43 (89.5%) had stage IV disease and 18 (37.5%) received more than one chemotherapy regimen before transplantation. Forty patients underwent auto-SCT and 7 had allogeneic SCT (allo-SCT); 1 patient had an allo-SCT for relapsed disease after auto-SCT. At the time of this analysis (median follow-up of 6 years from diagnosis and 4 years from transplantation), 40 patients (88%) were alive with a 5-year disease-free survival of 74.8%. Age, disease stage, number of regimens pre-SCT, pre-SCT disease status, and type of SCT had no impact on long-term outcomes. Importantly, there were no differences among the types of induction regimen on outcomes in this cohort receiving SCT. Based on our data, we believe that future studies should focus on strategies to prevent disease relapse rather than comparing induction regimens before stem cell transplantation.
Copyright © 2012 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. All rights reserved.
Estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancers adapt to hormone deprivation and become resistant to antiestrogens. In this study, we sought to identify kinases essential for growth of ER(+) breast cancer cells resistant to long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED). A kinome-wide siRNA screen showed that the insulin receptor (InsR) is required for growth of MCF-7/LTED cells. Knockdown of InsR and/or insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) inhibited growth of 3 of 4 LTED cell lines. Inhibition of InsR and IGF-IR with the dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor OSI-906 prevented the emergence of hormone-independent cells and tumors in vivo, inhibited parental and LTED cell growth and PI3K/AKT signaling, and suppressed growth of established MCF-7 xenografts in ovariectomized mice, whereas treatment with the neutralizing IGF-IR monoclonal antibody MAB391 was ineffective. Combined treatment with OSI-906 and the ER downregulator fulvestrant more effectively suppressed hormone-independent tumor growth than either drug alone. Finally, an insulin/IGF-I gene expression signature predicted recurrence-free survival in patients with ER(+) breast cancer treated with the antiestrogen tamoxifen. We conclude that therapeutic targeting of both InsR and IGF-IR should be more effective than targeting IGF-IR alone in abrogating resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer.
PURPOSE - To evaluate 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography imaging ((18)FDG-PET) as a predictive, noninvasive, pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarker of response following administration of a small-molecule insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and insulin receptor (IGF-1R/IR) inhibitor, OSI-906.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN - In vitro uptake studies of (3)H-2-deoxy glucose following OSI-906 exposure were conducted evaluating correlation of dose with inhibition of IGF-1R/IR as well as markers of downstream pathways and glucose metabolism. Similarly, in vivo PD effects were evaluated in human tumor cell line xenografts propagated in athymic nude mice by (18)FDG-PET at 2, 4, and 24 hours following a single treatment of OSI-906 for the correlation of inhibition of receptor targets and downstream markers.
RESULTS - Uptake of (3)H-2-deoxy glucose and (18)FDG was significantly diminished following OSI-906 exposure in sensitive tumor cells and subcutaneous xenografts (NCI-H292) but not in an insensitive model lacking IGF-1R expression (NCI-H441). Diminished PD (18)FDG-PET, collected immediately following the initial treatment agreed with inhibition of pIGF-1R/pIR, reduced PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase) pathway activity, and predicted tumor growth arrest as measured by high-resolution ultrasound imaging.
CONCLUSION - (18)FDG-PET seems to serve as a rapid, noninvasive PD marker of IGF-1R/IR inhibition following a single dose of OSI-906 and should be explored clinically as a predictive clinical biomarker in patients undergoing IGF-1R/IR-directed cancer therapy.
BACKGROUND - A plethora of agents is in early stages of development for colorectal cancer (CRC), including those that target the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR) pathway. In the current environment of numerous cancer targets, it is imperative that patient selection strategies be developed with the intent of preliminary testing in the latter stages of phase I trials. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize predictive biomarkers for an IGFIR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, OSI-906, that could be applied in CRC-specific studies of this agent.
METHODS - Twenty-seven CRC cell lines were exposed to OSI-906 and classified according to IC(50) value as sensitive (
5 micromol/L). Cell lines were subjected to immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry for effector proteins, IGFIR copy number by fluorescence in situ hybridization, KRAS/BRAF/phosphoinositide 3-kinase mutation status, and baseline gene array analysis. The most sensitive and resistant cell lines were used for gene array and pathway analyses, along with shRNA knockdown of highly ranked genes. The resulting integrated genomic classifier was then tested against eight human CRC explants in vivo.
RESULTS - Baseline gene array data from cell lines and xenografts were used to develop a k-top scoring pair (k-TSP) classifier, which, in combination with IGFIR fluorescence in situ hybridization and KRAS mutational status, was able to predict with 100% accuracy a test set of patient-derived CRC xenografts.
CONCLUSIONS - These results indicate that an integrated approach to the development of individualized therapy is feasible and should be applied early in the development of novel agents, ideally in conjunction with late-stage phase I trials.
(c) 2010 AACR.
BACKGROUND - We have previously shown that nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) specifically promotes the induction of malignant pleural effusions (MPE) by these cells. In the present studies we hypothesized that treatment of immunocompetent mice with bortezomib tailored to inhibit cancer cell NF-kappaB activation and not proliferation specifically inhibits MPE formation by LLC cells.
RESULTS - Treatment of LLC cells with low concentrations of bortezomib (100 ng/ml) inhibited NF-kappaB activation and NF-kappaB-dependent transcription, but not cellular proliferation. Bortezomib treatment of immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice bearing LLC-induced subcutaneous tumors and MPEs significantly blocked tumor-specific NF-kappaB activation. However, bortezomib treatment did not impair subcutaneous LLC tumor growth, but was effective in limiting LLC-induced MPE. This specific effect was evidenced by significant reductions in effusion accumulation and the associated mortality and was observed with both preventive (beginning before MPE formation) and therapeutic (beginning after MPE establishment) bortezomib treatment. The favorable impact of bortezomib on MPE was associated with suppression of cardinal MPE-associated phenomena, such as inflammation, vascular hyperpermeability, and angiogenesis. In this regard, therapeutic bortezomib treatment had identical favorable results on MPE compared with preventive treatment, indicating that the drug specifically counteracts effusion formation.
CONCLUSIONS - These studies indicate that proteasome inhibition tailored to block NF-kappaB activation of lung adenocarcinoma specifically targets the effusion-inducing phenotype of this tumor. Although the drug has limited activity against advanced solid lung cancer, it may prove beneficial for patients with MPE.
PURPOSE - Preclinical studies show that bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, blocks NF-kappaB activation and, combined with temozolomide, enhances activity against human melanoma xenografts and modulates other critical tumor targets. We initiated a phase I trial of temozolomide plus bortezomib in advanced melanoma. Objectives included defining a maximum tolerated dose for the combination, characterizing biomarker changes reflecting inhibition of both proteasome and NF-kappaB activity in blood (if possible tumor), and characterizing antitumor activity.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN - Cohorts were enrolled onto escalating dose levels of temozolomide (50-75 mg/m(2)) daily, orally, for 6 of 9 weeks and bortezomib (0.75-1.5 mg/m(2)) by i.v. push on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 every 21 days. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were assayed at specified time points for proteasome inhibition and NF-kappaB biomarker activity.
RESULTS - Bortezomib (1.3 mg/m(2)) and temozolomide (75 mg/m(2)) proved to be the maximum tolerated dose. Dose-limiting toxicities included neurotoxicity, fatigue, diarrhea, and rash. Nineteen melanoma patients were enrolled onto four dose levels. This melanoma population (17 M1c, 10 elevated lactate dehydrogenase, 12 performance status 1-2) showed only one partial response (8 months) and three with stable disease >or=4 months. A significant reduction in proteasome-specific activity was observed 1 hour after infusion at all bortezomib doses. Changes in NF-kappaB electrophoretic mobility shift assay and circulating chemokines in blood failed to correlate with the schedule/dose of bortezomib, inhibition of proteasome activity, or clinical outcome.
CONCLUSIONS - We have defined phase II doses for this schedule of temozolomide with bortezomib. Although proteasome activity was inhibited for a limited time in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we were unable to show consistent effects on NF-kappaB activation.