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BACKGROUND - Traditional measures of ARDS severity such as Pao/Fio may not reliably predict clinical outcomes. The oxygenation index (OI [Fio × mean airway pressure × 100)/Pao]) may more accurately reflect ARDS severity but requires arterial blood gas measurement. We hypothesized that the oxygenation saturation index (OSI [Fio × mean airway pressure × 100)/oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (Spo)]) is a reliable noninvasive surrogate for the OI that is associated with hospital mortality and ventilator-free days (VFDs) in patients with ARDS.
METHODS - Critically ill patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study were eligible if they developed ARDS (Berlin criteria) during the first 4 ICU days and had mean airway pressure, Spo/Fio, and Pao/Fio values recorded on the first day of ARDS (N = 329). The highest mean airway pressure and lowest Spo/Fio and Pao/Fio values were used to calculate OI and OSI. The association between OI or OSI and hospital mortality or VFD was analyzed by using logistic regression and linear regression, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) for mortality was compared among OI, OSI, Spo/Fio, Pao/Fio, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores.
RESULTS - OI and OSI were strongly correlated (rho = 0.862; P < .001). OSI was independently associated with hospital mortality (OR per 5-point increase in OSI, 1.228 [95% CI, 1.056-1.429]; P = .008). OI and OSI were each associated with a reduction in VFD (OI, P = .023; OSI, P = .005). The AUC for mortality prediction was greatest for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (AUC, 0.695; P < .005) and OSI (AUC, 0.602; P = .007). The AUC for OSI was substantially better in patients aged < 40 years (AUC, 0.779; P < .001).
CONCLUSIONS - In patients with ARDS, the OSI was correlated with the OI. The OSI on the day of ARDS diagnosis was significantly associated with increased mortality and fewer VFDs. The findings suggest that OSI is a reliable surrogate for OI that can noninvasively provide prognostic information and assessment of ARDS severity.
Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - Lrig1 is a marker of proliferative and quiescent stem cells in the skin and intestine. We examined whether Lrig1-expressing cells are long-lived gastric progenitors in gastric glands in the mouse stomach. We also investigated how the Lrig1-expressing progenitor cells contribute to the regeneration of normal gastric mucosa by lineage commitment to parietal cells after acute gastric injury in mice.
DESIGN - We performed lineage labelling using (Lrig1/YFP) or (Lrig1/LacZ) mice to examine whether the Lrig1-YFP-marked cells are gastric progenitor cells. We studied whether Lrig1-YFP-marked cells give rise to normal gastric lineage cells in damaged mucosa using Lrig1/YFP mice after treatment with DMP-777 to induce acute injury. We also studied Lrig1- (Lrig1 knockout) mice to examine whether the Lrig1 protein is required for regeneration of gastric corpus mucosa after acute injury.
RESULTS - Lrig1-YFP-marked cells give rise to gastric lineage epithelial cells both in the gastric corpus and antrum, in contrast to published results that Lgr5 only marks progenitor cells within the gastric antrum. Lrig1-YFP-marked cells contribute to replacement of damaged gastric oxyntic glands during the recovery phase after acute oxyntic atrophy in the gastric corpus. Lrig1 null mice recovered normally from acute gastric mucosal injury indicating that Lrig1 protein is not required for lineage differentiation. Lrig1+ isthmal progenitor cells did not contribute to transdifferentiating chief cell lineages after acute oxyntic atrophy.
CONCLUSIONS - Lrig1 marks gastric corpus epithelial progenitor cells capable of repopulating the damaged oxyntic mucosa by differentiating into normal gastric lineage cells in mouse stomach.
© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
BACKGROUND - Initial reports of transbronchial cryobiopsy for diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) suggest the diagnostic yield approaches that of surgical lung biopsy (SLB) with an excellent safety profile. Centers performing cryobiopsy differ significantly in procedure technique; an optimal technique minimizing complications but still capable of diagnosing a wide range of DPLDs has not been established. We evaluated our practice of flexible bronchoscopic cryobiopsy in a primarily outpatient setting for patients who required a tissue diagnosis for DPLD of uncertain etiology.
METHODS - Consecutive patients with indeterminate DPLD who underwent bronchoscopic cryobiopsy at a large academic medical center from January 2012 to August 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Rates of confident histopathologic diagnosis, confident multidisciplinary consensus diagnosis, management change, and complications were determined.
RESULTS - One hundred four cases were identified. Confident histopathologic diagnoses were established in 44% (46/104) and confident multidisciplinary consensus diagnoses in 68% (71/104). Usual interstitial pneumonia (19/104) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (22/104) were the most common histopathologic and consensus diagnoses, respectively. Five subjects proceeded to SLB after cryobiopsy which was diagnostic in 3. Results of cryobiopsies changed management in 70% (73/104). Complications occurred in 8 cases with no death.
CONCLUSIONS - Cryobiopsy during outpatient flexible bronchoscopy facilitated confident multidisciplinary consensus diagnosis of DPLD in more than two thirds of cases, and appears sufficient to establish the histopathologic diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia, with a complication rate that compares favorably to that reported for SLB.
BACKGROUND - Pediatric oncology patients are at an increased risk of invasive bacterial infection due to immunosuppression. The risk of such infection in the absence of severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count ≥ 500/μL) is not well established and a validated prediction model for blood stream infection (BSI) risk offers clinical usefulness.
METHODS - A 6-site retrospective external validation was conducted using a previously published risk prediction model for BSI in febrile pediatric oncology patients without severe neutropenia: the Esbenshade/Vanderbilt (EsVan) model. A reduced model (EsVan2) excluding 2 less clinically reliable variables also was created using the initial EsVan model derivative cohort, and was validated using all 5 external validation cohorts. One data set was used only in sensitivity analyses due to missing some variables.
RESULTS - From the 5 primary data sets, there were a total of 1197 febrile episodes and 76 episodes of bacteremia. The overall C statistic for predicting bacteremia was 0.695, with a calibration slope of 0.50 for the original model and a calibration slope of 1.0 when recalibration was applied to the model. The model performed better in predicting high-risk bacteremia (gram-negative or Staphylococcus aureus infection) versus BSI alone, with a C statistic of 0.801 and a calibration slope of 0.65. The EsVan2 model outperformed the EsVan model across data sets with a C statistic of 0.733 for predicting BSI and a C statistic of 0.841 for high-risk BSI.
CONCLUSIONS - The results of this external validation demonstrated that the EsVan and EsVan2 models are able to predict BSI across multiple performance sites and, once validated and implemented prospectively, could assist in decision making in clinical practice. Cancer 2017;123:3781-3790. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
© 2017 American Cancer Society.
OBJECTIVE - Currently, approximately 60-70% of patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remain seizure-free 3 years after surgery. The goal of this work was to develop a presurgical connectivity-based biomarker to identify those patients who will have an unfavorable seizure outcome 1-year postsurgery.
METHODS - Resting-state functional and diffusion-weighted 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was acquired from 22 unilateral (15 right, 7 left) patients with TLE and 35 healthy controls. A seizure propagation network was identified including ipsilateral (to seizure focus) and contralateral hippocampus, thalamus, and insula, with bilateral midcingulate and precuneus. Between each pair of regions, functional connectivity based on correlations of low frequency functional MRI signals, and structural connectivity based on streamline density of diffusion MRI data were computed and transformed to metrics related to healthy controls of the same age.
RESULTS - A consistent connectivity pattern representing the network expected in patients with seizure-free outcome was identified using eight patients who were seizure-free at 1-year postsurgery. The hypothesis that increased similarity to the model would be associated with better seizure outcome was tested in 14 other patients (Engel class IA, seizure-free: n = 5; Engel class IB-II, favorable: n = 4; Engel class III-IV, unfavorable: n = 5) using two similarity metrics: Pearson correlation and Euclidean distance. The seizure-free connectivity model successfully separated all the patients with unfavorable outcome from the seizure-free and favorable outcome patients (p = 0.0005, two-tailed Fisher's exact test) through the combination of the two similarity metrics with 100% accuracy. No other clinical and demographic predictors were successful in this regard.
SIGNIFICANCE - This work introduces a methodologic framework to assess individual patients, and demonstrates the ability to use network connectivity as a potential clinical tool for epilepsy surgery outcome prediction after more comprehensive validation.
Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.
RATIONALE - Improving the prospective identification of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis at low risk for organ dysfunction and death is a major clinical challenge.
OBJECTIVES - To develop and validate a multibiomarker-based prediction model for 28-day mortality in critically ill patients with SIRS and sepsis.
METHODS - A derivation cohort (n = 888) and internal test cohort (n = 278) were taken from a prospective study of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients meeting two of four SIRS criteria at an academic medical center for whom plasma was obtained within 24 hours. The validation cohort (n = 759) was taken from a prospective cohort enrolled at another academic medical center ICU for whom plasma was obtained within 48 hours. We measured concentrations of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, IL-6, IL-8, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and soluble Fas.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - We identified a two-biomarker model in the derivation cohort that predicted mortality (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve [AUC], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.83). It performed well in the internal test cohort (AUC, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.65-0.85) and the external validation cohort (AUC, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.72-0.83). We determined a model score threshold demonstrating high negative predictive value (0.95) for death. In addition to a low risk of death, patients below this threshold had shorter ICU length of stay, lower incidence of acute kidney injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and need for vasopressors.
CONCLUSIONS - We have developed a simple, robust biomarker-based model that identifies patients with SIRS/sepsis at low risk for death and organ dysfunction.
Importance - Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, prognostic data on CAC are limited in younger adults.
Objective - To determine if CAC in adults aged 32 to 46 years is associated with incident clinical CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality during 12.5 years of follow-up.
Design, Setting, and Participants - The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study is a prospective community-based study that recruited 5115 black and white participants aged 18 to 30 years from March 25, 1985, to June 7, 1986. The cohort has been under surveillance for 30 years, with CAC measured 15 (n = 3043), 20 (n = 3141), and 25 (n = 3189) years after recruitment. The mean follow-up period for incident events was 12.5 years, from the year 15 computed tomographic scan through August 31, 2014.
Main Outcomes and Measures - Incident CHD included fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome without myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or CHD death. Incident CVD included CHD, stroke, heart failure, and peripheral arterial disease. Death included all causes. The probability of developing CAC by age 32 to 56 years was estimated using clinical risk factors measured 7 years apart between ages 18 and 38 years.
Results - At year 15 of the study among 3043 participants (mean [SD] age, 40.3 [3.6] years; 1383 men and 1660 women), 309 individuals (10.2%) had CAC, with a geometric mean Agatston score of 21.6 (interquartile range, 17.3-26.8). Participants were followed up for 12.5 years, with 57 incident CHD events and 108 incident CVD events observed. After adjusting for demographics, risk factors, and treatments, those with any CAC experienced a 5-fold increase in CHD events (hazard ratio [HR], 5.0; 95% CI, 2.8-8.7) and 3-fold increase in CVD events (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.9-4.7). Within CAC score strata of 1-19, 20-99, and 100 or more, the HRs for CHD were 2.6 (95% CI, 1.0-5.7), 5.8 (95% CI, 2.6-12.1), and 9.8 (95% CI, 4.5-20.5), respectively. A CAC score of 100 or more had an incidence of 22.4 deaths per 100 participants (HR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.5-10.0); of the 13 deaths in participants with a CAC score of 100 or more, 10 were adjudicated as CHD events. Risk factors for CVD in early adult life identified those above the median risk for developing CAC and, if applied, in a selective CAC screening strategy could reduce the number of people screened for CAC by 50% and the number imaged needed to find 1 person with CAC from 3.5 to 2.2.
Conclusions and Relevance - The presence of CAC among individuals aged between 32 and 46 years was associated with increased risk of fatal and nonfatal CHD during 12.5 years of follow-up. A CAC score of 100 or more was associated with early death. Adults younger than 50 years with any CAC, even with very low scores, identified on a computed tomographic scan are at elevated risk of clinical CHD, CVD, and death. Selective use of screening for CAC might be considered in individuals with risk factors in early adulthood to inform discussions about primary prevention.
Background - Lower procalcitonin (PCT) concentrations are associated with reduced risk of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults, but data in children are limited.
Methods - We analyzed serum PCT concentrations from children hospitalized with radiographically confirmed CAP enrolled in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) Study. Blood and respiratory specimens were tested using multiple pathogen detection methods for typical bacteria (eg, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus), atypical bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae), and respiratory viruses. Multivariable regression was used to assess associations between PCT concentrations and etiology and severity.
Results - Among 532 children (median age, 2.4 years; interquartile range [IQR], 1.0-6.3), patients with typical bacteria had higher PCT concentrations (±viruses; n = 54; median, 6.10; IQR, 0.84-22.79 ng/mL) than those with atypical bacteria (±viruses; n = 82; median, 0.10; IQR, 0.06-0.39 ng/mL), viral pathogens only (n = 349; median, 0.33; IQR, 0.12-1.35 ng/mL), or no pathogen detected (n = 47; median, 0.44; IQR, 0.10-1.83 ng/mL) (P < .001 for all). No child with PCT <0.1 ng/mL had typical bacteria detected. Procalcitonin <0.25 ng/mL featured a 96% negative predictive value (95% confidence interval [CI], 93-99), 85% sensitivity (95% CI, 76-95), and 45% specificity (95% CI, 40-50) in identifying children without typical bacterial CAP.
Conclusions - Lower PCT concentrations in children hospitalized with CAP were associated with a reduced risk of typical bacterial detection and may help identify children who would not benefit from antibiotic treatment.
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
BACKGROUND & AIMS - There is controversy regarding the role of the type 2 immune response in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC)-few data are available from treatment-naive patients. We investigated whether genes associated with a type 2 immune response in the intestinal mucosa are up-regulated in treatment-naive pediatric patients with UC compared with patients with Crohn's disease (CD)-associated colitis or without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and whether expression levels are associated with clinical outcomes.
METHODS - We used a real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction array to analyze messenger RNA (mRNA) expression patterns in rectal mucosal samples from 138 treatment-naive pediatric patients with IBD and macroscopic rectal disease, as well as those from 49 children without IBD (controls), enrolled in a multicenter prospective observational study from 2008 to 2012. Results were validated in real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of rectal RNA from an independent cohort of 34 pediatric patients with IBD and macroscopic rectal disease and 17 controls from Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.
RESULTS - We measured significant increases in mRNAs associated with a type 2 immune response (interleukin [IL]5 gene, IL13, and IL13RA2) and a type 17 immune response (IL17A and IL23) in mucosal samples from patients with UC compared with patients with colon-only CD. In a regression model, increased expression of IL5 and IL17A mRNAs distinguished patients with UC from patients with colon-only CD (P = .001; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.72). We identified a gene expression pattern in rectal tissues of patients with UC, characterized by detection of IL13 mRNA, that predicted clinical response to therapy after 6 months (odds ratio [OR], 6.469; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.553-26.94), clinical response after 12 months (OR, 6.125; 95% CI, 1.330-28.22), and remission after 12 months (OR, 5.333; 95% CI, 1.132-25.12).
CONCLUSIONS - In an analysis of rectal tissues from treatment-naive pediatric patients with IBD, we observed activation of a type 2 immune response during the early course of UC. We were able to distinguish patients with UC from those with colon-only CD based on increased mucosal expression of genes that mediate type 2 and type 17 immune responses. Increased expression at diagnosis of genes that mediate a type 2 immune response is associated with response to therapy and remission in pediatric patients with UC.
Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Multiple different schemes are used to assess surgical resection margins in orthopedic pathology, but which is optimal for reporting resection margin status of osteosarcoma is uncertain. Moreover, the minimum tumor clearance (metric width of resection margin) necessary for local control is not well defined. In this investigation, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) R system, Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) system, and margin distance method for reporting resection margin status were compared in a series of 186 high-grade osteosarcomas. Hazard ratios for local recurrence for each resection margin category were compared with other categories within each margin assessment scheme to assess discriminatory ability. Cross-model comparisons of regression coefficients from parametric survival and logistic regression models were also performed. Predictive accuracy of each margin assessment scheme for determining 2-year local recurrence-free survival was evaluated by comparing the areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves generated from logistic regression analyses. Concordance with clinical outcomes was also calculated. Both the MSTS and margin distance schemes showed significantly greater predictive accuracy and concordance with observed outcomes than the AJCC R system. A margin distance of ≥2 mm significantly decreased the risk of local recurrence. Results were similar after adjustment for confounding prognostic factors (anatomic site, macroscopic lymphovascular invasion, and chemotherapy status). Therefore, surgical resection margins for osteosarcoma should be reported using either the MSTS or margin distance method instead of the AJCC R system.