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Despite evidence that many nursing home residents' pain is poorly managed, reasons for this poor management remain unanswered. The aim of this study was to determine if specific order sets related to pain assessment would improve pain management in nursing home (NH) residents. Outcomes included observed nurse pain assessment queries and resident reports of pain. The pretest/post-test study was performed in a 240-bed for-profit nursing home in the mid-southern region of the United States and participants were 43 nursing home residents capable of self-consent. Medical chart abstraction was performed during a 2-week (14-day) period before the implementation of specific order sets for pain assessment (intervention) and a 2-week (14-day) period after the intervention. Trained research assistants observed medication administration passes and performed participant interviews after each medication pass. One month after intervention implementation, 1 additional day of observations was conducted to determine data reliability. Nurses were observed to ask residents about pain more frequently, and nurses continued to ask about pain at higher rates 1 month after the intervention was discontinued. The proportion of residents who reported pain also significantly increased in response to increased nurse queries (e.g., "Do you have any pain right now?"), which underscores the importance of nurses directly asking residents about pain. Notably 70% of this long-stay NH population only told the nurses about their pain symptoms when asked directly. Findings uncover that using specific pain order sets seems to improve the detection of pain, which should be a routine part of nursing assessment.
Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Most non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are cared for by their primary care physicians (PCPs). Studies suggest many CKD patients receive suboptimal care. Recently, CKD clinical practice guidelines were updated with additional emphasis on albuminuria.
METHODS - We performed an internet-based, cross-sectional survey of active PCPs in the United States using the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. We explored CKD guideline familiarity, self-reported practice behaviors, and attitudinal and external barriers to implementing guideline recommendations, including albuminuria testing.
RESULTS - Of 12,034 PCPs targeted, 848 opened a study email, 165 (19.5%) responded. Most respondents (88%) spent ≥50% of their time in clinical care. Respondents were generally in private practice (46%). Most PCPs (96%) felt that eGFR values were helpful. Approximately, 75% and 91% of PCPs reported testing for albuminuria in non-diabetic hypertensive patients with an eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Barriers to albuminuria testing included a lack of effect on management, limited time, and the perceived absence of guidelines recommending testing. While PCPs expressed high levels of agreement with the definition of CKD, 30% were concerned with overdiagnosis in older adults with an eGFR in the CKD stage 3a range. Most PCPs felt that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi)/ angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) improved outcomes in CKD, though agreement was lower with severe vs. moderate albuminuria (78% vs. 85%, respectively, p = 0.03). Many PCPs (51%) reported being unfamiliar with CKD guidelines, but were receptive to systematic interventions to improve their CKD care.
CONCLUSIONS - PCPs generally agree with CKD clinical practice guidelines regarding CKD definition and albuminuria testing. However, future interventions are necessary to improve PCPs' familiarity with CKD guidelines, overcome barriers to albuminuria testing and, assist PCPs in targeting ACEi/ARBs to the patients most likely to benefit.
The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) publishes genotype-based drug guidelines to help clinicians understand how available genetic test results could be used to optimize drug therapy. CPIC has focused initially on well-known examples of pharmacogenomic associations that have been implemented in selected clinical settings, publishing nine to date. Each CPIC guideline adheres to a standardized format and includes a standard system for grading levels of evidence linking genotypes to phenotypes and assigning a level of strength to each prescribing recommendation. CPIC guidelines contain the necessary information to help clinicians translate patient-specific diplotypes for each gene into clinical phenotypes or drug dosing groups. This paper reviews the development process of the CPIC guidelines and compares this process to the Institute of Medicine's Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines.
PURPOSE - To evaluate the personal and professional characteristics associated with career satisfaction and burnout among US oncologists.
METHODS - Between October 2012 and March 2013, the American Society of Clinical Oncology conducted a survey of US oncologists evaluating burnout and career satisfaction. The survey sample included equal numbers of men and women and represented all career stages.
RESULTS - Of 2,998 oncologists contacted, 1,490 (49.7%) returned surveys (median age of respondents, 52 years; 49.6% women). Among the 1,117 oncologists (37.3% of overall sample) who completed full-length surveys, 377 (33.8%) were in academic practice (AP) and 482 (43.2%) in private practice (PP), with the remainder in other settings. Oncologists worked an average of 57.6 hours per week (AP, 58.6 hours per week; PP, 62.9 hours per week) and saw a mean of 52 outpatients per week. Overall, 484 oncologists (44.7%) were burned out on the emotional exhaustion and/or depersonalization domain of Maslach Burnout Inventory (AP, 45.9%; PP, 50.5%; P = .18). Hours per week devoted to direct patient care was the dominant professional predictor of burnout for both PP and AP oncologists on univariable and multivariable analyses. Although a majority of oncologists were satisfied with their career (82.5%) and specialty (80.4%) choices, both measures of career satisfaction were lower for those in PP relative to AP (all P < .006).
CONCLUSION - Overall career satisfaction is high among US oncologists, albeit lower for those in PP relative to AP. Burnout rates among oncologists seem similar to those described in recent studies of US physicians in general. Those oncologists who devote the greatest amount of their professional time to patient care seem to be at greatest risk for burnout.
OBJECTIVE - The value and cost-effectiveness of less invasive alternative imaging (AI) modalities (duplex ultrasound scanning, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography) in the care of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has been reported; however, there is no consensus on their role. We hypothesized that AI utilization is low compared with angiography in the United States and that patient and hospital characteristics are both associated with AI utilization.
METHODS - The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2007-2010) was used to identify patients with an International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Edition diagnosis of claudication or critical limb ischemia (CLI) as well as PAD treatment (surgical, endovascular, or amputation). Patients with AI and those with angiography or expected angiography (endovascular procedures without imaging codes) were selected and compared. Multivariable logistic regression was performed for receiving AI stratified by claudication and CLI and adjusting for patient and hospital factors.
RESULTS - We identified 290,184 PAD patients, of whom 5702 (2.0%) received AI. Patients with AI were more likely to have diagnosis of CLI (78.8% vs 48.6%; P < .0001) and receive open revascularizations (30.4% vs 18.8%; P < .0001). Van Walraven comorbidity scores (mean [standard error] 5.85 ± 0.22 vs 4.10 ± 0.05; P < .0001) reflected a higher comorbidity burden in AI patients. In multivariable analysis for claudicant patients, AI was associated with large bed size (odds ratio [OR], 3.26, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-9.18; P = .025), teaching hospitals (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.10-3.52; P = .023), and renal failure (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.13-2.05; P = .006). For CLI patients, AI was associated with black race (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.13-2.08; P = .006) and chronic heart failure (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.04-1.60; P = .021) and was negatively associated with renal failure (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.95; P = .012). The Northeast and West regions were associated with higher odds of AI in claudicant patients (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.23-4.75; P = .011; and OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.34-5.02; P = .005, respectively) and CLI patients (OR, 4.31; 95% CI, 2.20-8.36; P < .0001; and OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.12-4.22; P = .021, respectively). Rates of AI utilization across states were not evenly distributed but showed great variability, with ranges from 0.31% to 9.81%.
CONCLUSIONS - National utilization of AI for PAD is low and shows great variation among institutions in the United States. Patient and hospital factors are both associated with receiving AI in PAD care, and AI utilization is subject to significant regional variation. These findings suggest differences in systems of care or practice patterns and call for a clearer understanding and a more unified approach to imaging strategies in PAD care.
Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether antidepressant prescribing during pregnancy decreased following release of U.S. and Canadian public health advisory warnings about the risk of perinatal complications with antidepressants. We analyzed data from 228,876 singleton pregnancies among women (aged 15-44 years) continuously enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid with full pharmacy benefits (1995-2007). Antidepressant prescribing was determined through outpatient pharmacy dispensing files. Information on sociodemographic and clinical factors was obtained from enrollment files and linked birth certificates. An interrupted time series design with segmented regression analysis was used to quantify the impact of the advisory warnings (2002-2005). Antidepressant prescribing rates increased steadily from 1995 to 2001, followed by sharper increases from 2002 to late 2004. Overall antidepressant prescribing prevalence was 34.51 prescriptions [95 % confidence interval (CI) 33.37-35.65] per 1,000 women in January 2002, and increased at a rate of 0.46 (95 % CI 0.41-0.52) prescriptions per 1,000 women per month until the end of the pre-warning period (May 2004). During the post-warning period (October 2004-June 2005), antidepressant prescribing decreased by 1.48 (95 % CI 1.62-1.35) prescriptions per 1,000 women per month. These trends were observed for both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and non-SSRI antidepressants, although SSRI prescribing decreased at a greater rate. We conclude that antidepressant prescribing to pregnant women in Tennessee Medicaid increased from 1995 to late 2004. U.S. and Canadian public health advisories about antidepressant-associated perinatal complications were associated with steady decreases in antidepressant prescribing from late 2004 until the end of the study period, suggesting that the advisory warnings were impactful on antidepressant prescribing in pregnancy.
Sixty-six attending physicians at academic medical centers completed a 43-question self-assessment evaluating communication skills, comfort with clinical trial enrollment, and knowledge of patient-related barriers to enrollment on clinical trials. Responses and demographic information were analyzed for trends and for association with estimated trial enrollment. Physician-described enrollment of patients onto trials varied widely, with estimated enrollment varying from less than 5 patients to well over 125 enrolled during the previous year. Participants perceived themselves to have excellent communication skills and were comfortable with the trial enrollment process, though did not consistently identify patient-related barriers to enrollment. Physician knowledge of clinical trials currently enrolling within their field was associated with increased patient enrollment on study (p = 0.03). Academic physicians expressed confidence in their skills related to clinical trial enrollment despite less than ideal reported enrollment. Knowledge of clinical trials currently enrolling within a physician's specialty was associated with estimated patient enrollment, and may represent a correctable barrier to trial enrollment.
BACKGROUND - The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) developed guidelines to care for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). While these are disseminated through the NKF's website and publications, the guidelines' usage remains suboptimal. The KDOQI Educational Committee was formed to identify barriers to guideline implementation, determine provider and patient educational needs and develop tools to improve care of patients with CKD.
METHODS - An online survey was conducted from May to September 2010 to evaluate renal providers' familiarity, current use of and attitudes toward the guidelines and tools to implement the guidelines.
RESULTS - Most responders reported using the guidelines often and felt that they could be easily implemented into clinical practice; however, approximately one-half identified at least one barrier. Physicians and physician extenders most commonly cited the lack of evidence supporting KDOQI guidelines while allied health professionals most commonly listed patient non-adherence, unrealistic guideline goals and provider time-constraints. Providers thought that the guidelines included too much detail and identified the lack of a quick resource as a barrier to clinical implementation. Most were unaware of the Clinical Action Plans.
CONCLUSIONS - Perceived barriers differed between renal clinicians and allied health professionals; educational and implementation tools tailored for different providers are needed.
INTRODUCTION - Many challenges to clinical trial accrual exist, resulting in studies with inadequate enrollment and potentially delaying answers to important scientific and clinical questions.
METHODS - The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) cosponsored the Cancer Trial Accrual Symposium: Science and Solutions on April 29-30, 2010 to examine the state of accrual science related to patient/community, physician/provider, and site/organizational influences, and identify new interventions to facilitate clinical trial enrollment. The symposium featured breakout sessions, plenary sessions, and a poster session including 100 abstracts. Among the 358 attendees were clinical investigators, researchers of accrual strategies, research administrators, nurses, research coordinators, patient advocates, and educators. A bibliography of the accrual literature in these three major areas was provided to participants in advance of the meeting. After the symposium, the literature in these areas was revisited to determine if the symposium recommendations remained relevant within the context of the current literature.
RESULTS - Few rigorously conducted studies have tested interventions to address challenges to clinical trials accrual. Attendees developed recommendations for improving accrual and identified priority areas for future accrual research at the patient/community, physician/provider, and site/organizational levels. Current literature continues to support the symposium recommendations.
CONCLUSIONS - A combination of approaches addressing both the multifactorial nature of accrual challenges and the characteristics of the target population may be needed to improve accrual to cancer clinical trials. Recommendations for best practices and for future research developed from the symposium are provided.