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Gene expression in triple-negative breast cancer in relation to survival.
Wang S, Beeghly-Fadiel A, Cai Q, Cai H, Guo X, Shi L, Wu J, Ye F, Qiu Q, Zheng Y, Zheng W, Bao PP, Shu XO
(2018) Breast Cancer Res Treat 171: 199-207
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Biomarkers, Tumor, Female, Gene Expression, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Humans, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Grading, Neoplasm Staging, Population Surveillance, Prognosis, Registries, Survival Analysis, Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
Show Abstract · Added December 6, 2018
PURPOSE - The identification of biomarkers related to the prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is critically important for improved understanding of the biology that drives TNBC progression.
METHODS - We evaluated gene expression in total RNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples using the NanoString nCounter assay for 469 TNBC cases from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study. We used Cox regression to quantify Hazard Ratios (HR) and corresponding confidence intervals (CI) for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in models that included adjustment for breast cancer intrinsic subtype. Of 302 genes in our discovery analysis, 22 were further evaluated in relation to OS among 134 TNBC cases from the Nashville Breast Health Study and the Southern Community Cohort Study; 16 genes were further evaluated in relation to DFS in 335 TNBC cases from four gene expression omnibus datasets. Fixed-effect meta-analysis was used to combine results across data sources.
RESULTS - Twofold higher expression of EOMES (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97), RASGRP1 (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.97), and SOD2 (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.96) was associated with better OS. Twofold higher expression of EOMES (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.97) and RASGRP1 (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.95) was also associated with better DFS. On the contrary, a doubling of FA2H (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.22) and GSPT1 (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14-1.55) expression was associated with shorter DFS.
CONCLUSIONS - We identified five genes (EOMES, FA2H, GSPT1, RASGRP1, and SOD2) that may serve as potential prognostic biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets for TNBC.
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16 MeSH Terms
Consecutive negative findings on colonoscopy during surveillance predict a low risk of advanced neoplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease with long-standing colitis: results of a 15-year multicentre, multinational cohort study.
Ten Hove JR, Shah SC, Shaffer SR, Bernstein CN, Castaneda D, Palmela C, Mooiweer E, Elman J, Kumar A, Glass J, Axelrad J, Ullman TA, Colombel JF, Torres J, van Bodegraven AA, Hoentjen F, Jansen JM, de Jong ME, Mahmmod N, van der Meulen-de Jong AE, Ponsioen CY, van der Woude CJ, Itzkowitz SH, Oldenburg B
(2019) Gut 68: 615-622
MeSH Terms: Adult, Colitis, Colonic Neoplasms, Colonoscopy, Disease Progression, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Grading, Population Surveillance, Precancerous Conditions, Predictive Value of Tests, Risk Factors
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
OBJECTIVES - Surveillance colonoscopy is thought to prevent colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with long-standing colonic IBD, but data regarding the frequency of surveillance and the findings thereof are lacking. Our aim was to determine whether consecutive negative surveillance colonoscopies adequately predict low neoplastic risk.
DESIGN - A multicentre, multinational database of patients with long-standing IBD colitis without high-risk features and undergoing regular CRC surveillance was constructed. A 'negative' surveillance colonoscopy was predefined as a technically adequate procedure having no postinflammatory polyps, no strictures, no endoscopic disease activity and no evidence of neoplasia; a 'positive' colonoscopy was a technically adequate procedure that included at least one of these criteria. The primary endpoint was advanced colorectal neoplasia (aCRN), defined as high-grade dysplasia or CRC.
RESULTS - Of 775 patients with long-standing IBD colitis, 44% (n=340) had 1 negative colonoscopy. Patients with consecutive negative surveillance colonoscopies were compared with those who had at least one positive colonoscopy. Both groups had similar demographics, disease-related characteristics, number of surveillance colonoscopies and time intervals between colonoscopies. No aCRN occurred in those with consecutive negative surveillance, compared with an incidence rate of 0.29 to 0.76/100 patient-years (P=0.02) in those having 1 positive colonoscopy on follow-up of 6.1 (P25-P75: 4.6-8.2) years after the index procedure.
CONCLUSION - Within this large surveillance cohort of patients with colonic IBD and no additional high-risk features, having two consecutive negative colonoscopies predicted a very low risk of aCRN occurrence on follow-up. Our findings suggest that longer surveillance intervals in this selected population may be safe.
© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2019. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
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Prospective study of blood metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk.
Shu X, Xiang YB, Rothman N, Yu D, Li HL, Yang G, Cai H, Ma X, Lan Q, Gao YT, Jia W, Shu XO, Zheng W
(2018) Int J Cancer 143: 527-534
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Case-Control Studies, Chromatography, Gas, Colorectal Neoplasms, Female, Humans, Male, Metabolome, Metabolomics, Middle Aged, Odds Ratio, Population Surveillance, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
Show Abstract · Added March 26, 2018
Few prospective studies, and none in Asians, have systematically evaluated the relationship between blood metabolites and colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a nested case-control study to search for risk-associated metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer in an Asian population using blood samples collected prior to cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess associations of metabolites with cancer risk. In this study, we included 250 incident cases with colorectal cancer and individually matched controls nested within two prospective Shanghai cohorts. We found 35 metabolites associated with risk of colorectal cancer after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Among them, 12 metabolites were glycerophospholipids including nine associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and three with increased risk [odds ratios per standard deviation increase of transformed metabolites: 0.31-1.98; p values: 0.002-1.25 × 10 ]. The other 23 metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk included nine lipids other than glycerophospholipid, seven aromatic compounds, five organic acids and four other organic compounds. After mutual adjustment, nine metabolites remained statistically significant for colorectal cancer. Together, these independently associated metabolites can separate cancer cases from controls with an area under the curve of 0.76 for colorectal cancer. We have identified that dysregulation of glycerophospholipids may contribute to risk of colorectal cancer.
© 2018 UICC.
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Opioid Analgesic Use and Risk for Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases: A Nested Case-Control Study.
Wiese AD, Griffin MR, Schaffner W, Stein CM, Greevy RA, Mitchel EF, Grijalva CG
(2018) Ann Intern Med 168: 396-404
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Analgesics, Opioid, Case-Control Studies, Child, Child, Preschool, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Pneumococcal Infections, Population Surveillance, Retrospective Studies, Risk Factors, Tennessee
Show Abstract · Added July 27, 2018
Background - Although certain opioid analgesics have immunosuppressive properties and increase the risk for infections in animals, the clinical effects of prescription opioid use on infection risk among humans are unknown.
Objective - To test the hypothesis that prescription opioid use is an independent risk factor for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD).
Design - Nested case-control study.
Setting - Tennessee Medicaid database linked to Medicare and Active Bacterial Core surveillance system databases (1995 to 2014).
Patients - 1233 case patients with IPD aged 5 years and older matched to 24 399 control participants by diagnosis date, age, and county of residence.
Measurements - Opioid use was measured on the basis of pharmacy prescription fills. Invasive pneumococcal disease was defined by the isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from a normally sterile site. The odds of current opioid use were compared between the case and control groups, accounting for known IPD risk factors. Secondary analyses categorized opioid use by opioid characteristics, applied an IPD risk score to assure comparability between exposure groups, and analyzed pneumonia and nonpneumonia IPD cases separately.
Results - Persons in the case group had greater odds than control participants of being current opioid users (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62 [95% CI, 1.36 to 1.92]). Associations were strongest for opioids that were long acting (aOR, 1.87 [CI, 1.24 to 2.82]), of high potency (aOR, 1.72 [CI, 1.32 to 2.25]), or were used at high dosages (50 to 90 morphine milligram equivalents [MME]/d: aOR, 1.71 [CI, 1.22 to 2.39]; ≥90 MME/d: aOR, 1.75 [CI, 1.33 to 2.29]). Results were consistent when the IPD risk score was taken into account and pneumonia and nonpneumonia IPD were analyzed separately.
Limitations - Unmeasured confounding and measurement error, although sensitivity analyses suggested that neither was likely to affect results. Actual opioid use and other nonprescription use (such as illicit opioid use) were not measured.
Conclusion - Opioid use is associated with an increased risk for IPD and represents a novel risk factor for these diseases.
Primary Funding Source - National Institutes of Health.
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A common deletion in the haptoglobin gene associated with blood cholesterol levels among Chinese women.
Zheng NS, Bastarache LA, Bastarache JA, Lu Y, Ware LB, Shu XO, Denny JC, Long J
(2017) J Hum Genet 62: 911-914
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Alleles, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, Case-Control Studies, Cholesterol, DNA Copy Number Variations, Female, Gene Frequency, Genetic Association Studies, Genotype, Haptoglobins, Humans, Middle Aged, Population Surveillance, Sequence Deletion, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
Haptoglobin (HP) protein plays a critical role in binding and removing free hemoglobin from blood. A deletion in the HP gene affects the protein structure and function. A recent study developed a novel method to impute this variant and discovered significant association of this variant with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol levels among European descendants. In the present study, we investigated this variant among 3608 Chinese women. Consistent with findings from Europeans, we found significant associations between the deletion with lower cholesterol levels; women homozygous for the deletion allele (HP1-HP1), had a lower level of total cholesterol (-4.24 mg dl, P=0.02) and LDL cholesterol (-3.43 mg dl, P=0.03) than those not carrying the deletion allele (HP2-HP2). Especially, women carrying the HP1S-HP1S, had an even lower level of total cholesterol (-5.59 mg dl, P=7.0 × 10) and LDL cholesterol (-4.68 mg dl, P=8.0 × 10) compared to those carrying HP2-HP2. These associations remained significant after an adjustment for an established cholesterol level-related variant, rs2000999. Our study extends the previous findings regarding the association of HP structure variant with blood cholesterol levels to East Asians and affirms the validity of the new methodology for assessing HP structure variation.
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17 MeSH Terms
Evaluating genetic variants associated with breast cancer risk in high and moderate-penetrance genes in Asians.
Han MR, Zheng W, Cai Q, Gao YT, Zheng Y, Bolla MK, Michailidou K, Dennis J, Wang Q, Dunning AM, Brennan P, Chen ST, Choi JY, Hartman M, Ito H, Lophatananon A, Matsuo K, Miao H, Muir K, Sangrajrang S, Shen CY, Teo SH, Tseng CC, Wu AH, Yip CH, Kang D, Xiang YB, Easton DF, Shu XO, Long J
(2017) Carcinogenesis 38: 511-518
MeSH Terms: Alleles, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, Breast Neoplasms, Chromosome Mapping, Databases, Genetic, Female, Gene Frequency, Genetic Association Studies, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genetic Variation, Humans, Penetrance, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Population Surveillance, Risk
Show Abstract · Added April 21, 2017
Over the past 20 years, high-penetrance pathogenic mutations in genes BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, PTEN, STK11 and CDH1 and moderate-penetrance mutations in genes CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD50 and NBN have been identified for breast cancer. In this study, we investigated whether there are additional variants in these 13 genes associated with breast cancer among women of Asian ancestry. We analyzed up to 654 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 6269 cases and 6624 controls of Asian descent included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), and up to 236 SNPs from 5794 cases and 5529 controls included in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Genetics Study (SBCGS). We found three missense variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.05: rs80358978 (Gly2508Ser), rs80359065 (Lys2729Asn) and rs11571653 (Met784Val) in the BRCA2 gene, showing statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk, with P-values of 1.2 × 10-4, 1.0 × 10-3 and 5.0 × 10-3, respectively. In addition, we found four low-frequency variants (rs8176085, rs799923, rs8176173 and rs8176258) in the BRCA1 gene, one common variant in the CHEK2 gene (rs9620817), and one common variant in the PALB2 gene (rs13330119) associated with breast cancer risk at P < 0.01. Our study identified several new risk variants in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2 genes in relation to breast cancer risk in Asian women. These results provide further insights that, in addition to the high/moderate penetrance mutations, other low-penetrance variants in these genes may also contribute to breast cancer risk.
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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Postdiagnosis social networks and breast cancer mortality in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project.
Kroenke CH, Michael YL, Poole EM, Kwan ML, Nechuta S, Leas E, Caan BJ, Pierce J, Shu XO, Zheng Y, Chen WY
(2017) Cancer 123: 1228-1237
MeSH Terms: Biomarkers, Tumor, Breast Neoplasms, Cohort Studies, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Mortality, Neoplasm Staging, Patient Outcome Assessment, Population Surveillance, Prognosis, Proportional Hazards Models, Risk Factors, Social Support, Socioeconomic Factors
Show Abstract · Added May 19, 2017
BACKGROUND - Large social networks have been associated with better overall survival, though not consistently with breast cancer (BC)-specific outcomes. This study evaluated associations of postdiagnosis social networks and BC outcomes in a large cohort.
METHODS - Women from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project (n = 9267) provided data on social networks within approximately 2 years of their diagnosis. A social network index was derived from information about the presence of a spouse/partner, religious ties, community ties, friendship ties, and numbers of living first-degree relatives. Cox models were used to evaluate associations, and a meta-analysis was used to determine whether effect estimates differed by cohort. Stratification by demographic, social, tumor, and treatment factors was performed.
RESULTS - There were 1448 recurrences and 1521 deaths (990 due to BC). Associations were similar in 3 of 4 cohorts. After covariate adjustments, socially isolated women (small networks) had higher risks of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-1.77), BC-specific mortality (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.33-2.03), and total mortality (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.43-1.99) than socially integrated women; associations were stronger in those with stage I/II cancer. In the fourth cohort, there were no significant associations with BC-specific outcomes. A lack of a spouse/partner (P = .02) and community ties (P = .04) predicted higher BC-specific mortality in older white women but not in other women. However, a lack of relatives (P = .02) and friendship ties (P = .01) predicted higher BC-specific mortality in nonwhite women only.
CONCLUSIONS - In a large pooled cohort, larger social networks were associated with better BC-specific and overall survival. Clinicians should assess social network information as a marker of prognosis because critical supports may differ with sociodemographic factors. Cancer 2017;123:1228-1237. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
© 2016 American Cancer Society.
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Prediction of breast cancer risk based on common genetic variants in women of East Asian ancestry.
Wen W, Shu XO, Guo X, Cai Q, Long J, Bolla MK, Michailidou K, Dennis J, Wang Q, Gao YT, Zheng Y, Dunning AM, García-Closas M, Brennan P, Chen ST, Choi JY, Hartman M, Ito H, Lophatananon A, Matsuo K, Miao H, Muir K, Sangrajrang S, Shen CY, Teo SH, Tseng CC, Wu AH, Yip CH, Simard J, Pharoah PD, Hall P, Kang D, Xiang Y, Easton DF, Zheng W
(2016) Breast Cancer Res 18: 124
MeSH Terms: Algorithms, Asia, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, Breast Neoplasms, Case-Control Studies, Female, Genetic Association Studies, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genetic Variation, Genome-Wide Association Study, Humans, Models, Statistical, Odds Ratio, Population Surveillance, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
BACKGROUND - Approximately 100 common breast cancer susceptibility alleles have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The utility of these variants in breast cancer risk prediction models has not been evaluated adequately in women of Asian ancestry.
METHODS - We evaluated 88 breast cancer risk variants that were identified previously by GWAS in 11,760 cases and 11,612 controls of Asian ancestry. SNPs confirmed to be associated with breast cancer risk in Asian women were used to construct a polygenic risk score (PRS). The relative and absolute risks of breast cancer by the PRS percentiles were estimated based on the PRS distribution, and were used to stratify women into different levels of breast cancer risk.
RESULTS - We confirmed significant associations with breast cancer risk for SNPs in 44 of the 78 previously reported loci at P < 0.05. Compared with women in the middle quintile of the PRS, women in the top 1% group had a 2.70-fold elevated risk of breast cancer (95% CI: 2.15-3.40). The risk prediction model with the PRS had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.606. The lifetime risk of breast cancer for Shanghai Chinese women in the lowest and highest 1% of the PRS was 1.35% and 10.06%, respectively.
CONCLUSION - Approximately one-half of GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants can be directly replicated in East Asian women. Collectively, common genetic variants are important predictors for breast cancer risk. Using common genetic variants for breast cancer could help identify women at high risk of breast cancer.
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Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Density and Evolution of Acute Respiratory Illnesses in Young Children, Peru, 2009-2011.
Fan RR, Howard LM, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Zhu Y, Williams JV, Vidal JE, Klugman KP, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG
(2016) Emerg Infect Dis 22: 1996-1999
MeSH Terms: Acute Disease, Bacterial Load, Child, Preschool, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Humans, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Male, Nasopharynx, Peru, Pneumococcal Infections, Pneumococcal Vaccines, Population Surveillance, Respiratory Tract Infections, Risk Factors, Streptococcus pneumoniae
Show Abstract · Added July 27, 2018
We examined nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization density patterns surrounding acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) in young children in Peru. Pneumococcal densities were dynamic, gradually increasing leading up to an ARI, peaking during the ARI, and decreasing after the ARI. Rhinovirus co-infection was associated with higher pneumococcal densities.
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Fine-Mapping of the 1p11.2 Breast Cancer Susceptibility Locus.
Horne HN, Chung CC, Zhang H, Yu K, Prokunina-Olsson L, Michailidou K, Bolla MK, Wang Q, Dennis J, Hopper JL, Southey MC, Schmidt MK, Broeks A, Muir K, Lophatananon A, Fasching PA, Beckmann MW, Fletcher O, Johnson N, Sawyer EJ, Tomlinson I, Burwinkel B, Marme F, Guénel P, Truong T, Bojesen SE, Flyger H, Benitez J, González-Neira A, Anton-Culver H, Neuhausen SL, Brenner H, Arndt V, Meindl A, Schmutzler RK, Brauch H, Hamann U, Nevanlinna H, Khan S, Matsuo K, Iwata H, Dörk T, Bogdanova NV, Lindblom A, Margolin S, Mannermaa A, Kosma VM, Chenevix-Trench G, kConFab/AOCS Investigators, Wu AH, Ven den Berg D, Smeets A, Zhao H, Chang-Claude J, Rudolph A, Radice P, Barile M, Couch FJ, Vachon C, Giles GG, Milne RL, Haiman CA, Marchand LL, Goldberg MS, Teo SH, Taib NA, Kristensen V, Borresen-Dale AL, Zheng W, Shrubsole M, Winqvist R, Jukkola-Vuorinen A, Andrulis IL, Knight JA, Devilee P, Seynaeve C, García-Closas M, Czene K, Darabi H, Hollestelle A, Martens JW, Li J, Lu W, Shu XO, Cox A, Cross SS, Blot W, Cai Q, Shah M, Luccarini C, Baynes C, Harrington P, Kang D, Choi JY, Hartman M, Chia KS, Kabisch M, Torres D, Jakubowska A, Lubinski J, Sangrajrang S, Brennan P, Slager S, Yannoukakos D, Shen CY, Hou MF, Swerdlow A, Orr N, Simard J, Hall P, Pharoah PD, Easton DF, Chanock SJ, Dunning AM, Figueroa JD
(2016) PLoS One 11: e0160316
MeSH Terms: Alleles, Breast Neoplasms, Case-Control Studies, Chromosome Mapping, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1, Computational Biology, Female, Gene Frequency, Genetic Association Studies, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genotype, Humans, Linkage Disequilibrium, Neoplasm Grading, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Population Surveillance, Quantitative Trait Loci, Risk Assessment
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
The Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility genome-wide association study (GWAS) originally identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11249433 at 1p11.2 associated with breast cancer risk. To fine-map this locus, we genotyped 92 SNPs in a 900kb region (120,505,799-121,481,132) flanking rs11249433 in 45,276 breast cancer cases and 48,998 controls of European, Asian and African ancestry from 50 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping was done using iCOGS, a custom-built array. Due to the complicated nature of the region on chr1p11.2: 120,300,000-120,505,798, that lies near the centromere and contains seven duplicated genomic segments, we restricted analyses to 429 SNPs excluding the duplicated regions (42 genotyped and 387 imputed). Per-allelic associations with breast cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression models adjusting for study and ancestry-specific principal components. The strongest association observed was with the original identified index SNP rs11249433 (minor allele frequency (MAF) 0.402; per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.13, P = 1.49 x 10-21). The association for rs11249433 was limited to ER-positive breast cancers (test for heterogeneity P≤8.41 x 10-5). Additional analyses by other tumor characteristics showed stronger associations with moderately/well differentiated tumors and tumors of lobular histology. Although no significant eQTL associations were observed, in silico analyses showed that rs11249433 was located in a region that is likely a weak enhancer/promoter. Fine-mapping analysis of the 1p11.2 breast cancer susceptibility locus confirms this region to be limited to risk to cancers that are ER-positive.
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