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CKD is steadily increasing along with obesity worldwide. Furthermore, obesity is a proinflammatory risk factor for progression of CKD and cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that implementation of caloric restriction and aerobic exercise is feasible and can improve the proinflammatory metabolic milieu in patients with moderate to severe CKD through a pilot, randomized, 2×2 factorial design trial. Of 122 participants consented, 111 were randomized to receive caloric restriction and aerobic exercise, caloric restriction alone, aerobic exercise alone, or usual care. Of those randomized, 42% were women, 25% were diabetic, and 91% were hypertensive; 104 started intervention, and 92 completed the 4-month study. Primary outcomes were a change from baseline in absolute fat mass, body weight, plasma F-isoprostane concentrations, and peak oxygen uptake (VO). Compared with usual care, the combined intervention led to statistically significant decreases in body weight and body fat percentage. Caloric restriction alone also led to significant decreases in these measures, but aerobic exercise alone did not. The combined intervention and each independent intervention also led to significant decreases in F-isoprostane and IL-6 concentrations. No intervention produced significant changes in VO, kidney function, or urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. In conclusion, 4-month dietary calorie restriction and aerobic exercise had significant, albeit clinically modest, benefits on body weight, fat mass, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in patients with moderate to severe CKD. These results suggest healthy lifestyle interventions as a nonpharmacologic strategy to improve markers of metabolic health in these patients.
Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.
BACKGROUND - Magnetic compression anastomosis (magnamosis) uses a pair of self-centering magnetic Harrison Rings to create an intestinal anastomosis without sutures or staples. We report the first-in-human case series using this unique device.
STUDY DESIGN - We conducted a prospective, single-center, first-in-human pilot trial to evaluate the feasibility and safety of creating an intestinal anastomosis using the Magnamosis device. Adult patients requiring any intestinal anastomosis to restore bowel continuity were eligible for inclusion. For each procedure, 1 Harrison Ring was placed in the lumen of each intestinal segment. The rings were brought together and mated, and left to form a side to side, functional end to end anastomosis. Device movement was monitored with serial x-rays until it was passed in the stool. Patients were monitored for adverse effects with routine clinic appointments, as well as questionnaires.
RESULTS - Five patients have undergone small bowel anastomosis with the Magnamosis device. All 5 patients had severe systemic disease and underwent complex open urinary reconstruction procedures, with the device used to restore small bowel continuity after isolation of an ileal segment. All devices passed without obstruction or pain. No patients have had any complications related to their anastomosis, including anastomotic leaks, bleeding, or stricture at median follow-up of 13 months.
CONCLUSIONS - In this initial case series from the first-in-human trial of the Magnamosis device, the device was successfully placed and effectively formed a side to side, functional end to end small bowel anastomosis in all 5 patients. No patients have had any anastomotic complications at intermediate follow-up.
Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Patients with chronic kidney disease are at increased risk of cystic kidney disease that requires imaging monitoring in many cases. However, these same patients often have contraindications to contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This study evaluates the accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), which is safe for patients with chronic kidney disease, for the characterization of kidney lesions in patients with and without chronic kidney disease.
METHODS - We performed CEUS on 44 patients, both with and without chronic kidney disease, with indeterminate or suspicious kidney lesions (both cystic and solid). Two masked radiologists categorized lesions using CEUS images according to contrast-enhanced ultrasound adapted criteria. CEUS designation was compared to histology or follow-up imaging in cases without available tissue in all patients and the subset with chronic kidney disease to determine sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy.
RESULTS - Across all patients, CEUS had a sensitivity of 96% (95% CI: 84%, 99%) and specificity of 50% (95% CI: 32%, 68%) for detecting malignancy. Among patients with chronic kidney disease, CEUS sensitivity was 90% (95% CI: 56%, 98%), and specificity was 55% (95% CI: 36%, 73%).
CONCLUSIONS - CEUS has high sensitivity for identifying malignancy of kidney lesions. However, because specificity is low, modifications to the classification scheme for contrast-enhanced ultrasound could be considered as a way to improve contrast-enhanced ultrasound specificity and thus overall performance. Due to its sensitivity, among patients with chronic kidney disease or other contrast contraindications, CEUS has potential as an imaging test to rule out malignancy.
TRIAL REGISTRATION - This trial was registered in clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01751529 .
BACKGROUND - The challenging biological and mechanical environment of posterolateral fusion (PLF) requires a carrier that spans the transverse processes and resists the compressive forces of the posterior musculature. The less traumatic posterolateral approach enabled by minimally invasive surgical techniques has prompted investigations into alternative rhBMP-2 carriers that are injectable, settable, and compression-resistant. In this pilot study, we investigated injectable low-viscosity (LV) polymer/composite bone grafts as compression-resistant carriers for rhBMP-2 in a single-level rabbit PLF model.
METHODS - LV grafts were augmented with ceramic microparticles: (1) hydrolytically degradable bioactive glass (BG), or (2) cell-degradable 85% β-tricalcium phosphate/15% hydroxyapatite (CM). Material properties, such as pore size, viscosity, working time, and bulk modulus upon curing, were measured for each LV polymer/ceramic material. An in vivo model of posterolateral fusion in a rabbit was used to assess the grafts' capability to encourage spinal fusion.
RESULTS - These materials maintained a working time between 9.6 and 10.3 min, with a final bulk modulus between 1.2 and 3.1 MPa. The LV polymer/composite bone grafts released 55% of their rhBMP-2 over a 14-day period. As assessed by manual palpation in vivo, fusion was achieved in all (n = 3) animals treated with LV/BG or LV/CM carriers incorporating 430 μg rhBMP-2/ml. Images of μCT and histological sections revealed evidence of bone fusion near the transverse processes.
CONCLUSION - This study highlights the potential of LV grafts as injectable and compression-resistant rhBMP-2 carriers for posterolateral spinal fusion.
PURPOSE - Engagement of patients in the HIV care continuum and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) continue to limit successful viral suppression. Innovative practices to improve this continuum and ameliorate potential physician shortages are needed. The objective of this evaluation was to determine the clinical benefits of incorporating pharmacy resident involvement on a multidisciplinary team in caring for patients with HIV.
METHODS - A single-center pre-post cohort pilot evaluation was conducted at the Tennessee Valley Healthcare Systems VA Medical Center. Patients were enrolled in an HIV pharmacotherapy clinic implemented by an ambulatory care pharmacy resident. The primary end point of the evaluation was the percentage of patients achieving an undetectable plasma HIV viral load after enrollment. Secondary end points included change from baseline in CD4 T-cell count and self-reported adherence.
RESULTS - A total of 55 patients were seen in the HIV pharmacotherapy clinic over a 28-week evaluation period. Of those patients with detectable viral load at enrollment, 70% reached viral suppression during follow-up, with a significant 0.75 log10 decrease in the median viral load ( P < .0001 for both). The median CD4 T-cell count increased from 464 to 525 cells/mm ( P = .01). Reported adherence, assessed using the Visual Analogue adherence Scale (VAS) increased significantly ( P = .0001).
CONCLUSION - After enrollment in an HIV pharmacotherapy clinic, a significant decrease in viral load was seen, as were improvements in secondary end points of CD4 T cells and adherence. These data demonstrate the clinical benefits of pharmacy resident involvement on a multidisciplinary team in caring for patients with HIV.
As observed during the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease epidemic, containment of filovirus outbreaks is challenging and made more difficult by the lack of approved vaccine or therapeutic options. Marburg and Ravn viruses are highly virulent and cause severe and frequently lethal disease in humans. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a platform technology in wide use for autoimmune and oncology indications. Previously, we described human mAbs that can protect mice from lethal challenge with Marburg virus. We demonstrate that one of these mAbs, MR191-N, can confer a survival benefit of up to 100% to Marburg or Ravn virus-infected rhesus macaques when treatment is initiated up to 5 days post-inoculation. These findings extend the small but growing body of evidence that mAbs can impart therapeutic benefit during advanced stages of disease with highly virulent viruses and could be useful in epidemic settings.
Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
BACKGROUND - The clinical association between cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is well known. Studies have identified several non-CF transmembrane conductance regulator single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with disease severity in CF patients. We hypothesized that prevalence of these SNPs would be different between CRS patients and age/gender-matched non-CRS controls.
METHODS - This is a targeted SNP study of 1231 CRS patients identified through a large university hospital database who were compared with 8796 age- and gender-matched controls without a history of rhinitis, sinusitis, allergies, or asthma. Prevalence of 5 relevant SNPs was compared between groups, with p < 0.05 considered significant. Stratification by race and gender was performed among groups when statistically appropriate.
RESULTS - CRS patients exhibited a statistically significant (p = 0.036) lower prevalence of rs12883884 (associated with an ion transporter) compared with controls. This association was lost when patients were stratified by race. CRS patients manifested a greater prevalence of rs1403543 (chromosome 23) in both Caucasian and African American subgroups (p = 0.036 and p = 0.026, respectively). Statistical significance disappeared among Caucasians when stratified by gender, but persisted among African American women (p = 0.047). rs12188164 and rs12793173 were both more prevalent in African Americans with CRS than controls (p = 0.042 and p = 0.020, respectively). A trend was also observed for decreased prevalence of rs12883884 in CRS patients compared with controls in the African American subgroup (p = 0.086).
CONCLUSION - The identified SNPs were differentially prevalent in CRS compared with control groups, with some variability as a function of race and gender. Further research is required to confirm these findings and elucidate clinical significance.
© 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
BACKGROUND - Drug-induced QT interval prolongation, a risk factor for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, is a potential side effect of many marketed and withdrawn medications. The contribution of common genetic variants previously associated with baseline QT interval to drug-induced QT prolongation and arrhythmias is not known.
METHODS - We tested the hypothesis that a weighted combination of common genetic variants contributing to QT interval at baseline, identified through genome-wide association studies, can predict individual response to multiple QT-prolonging drugs. Genetic analysis of 22 subjects was performed in a secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of 3 QT-prolonging drugs with 15 time-matched QT and plasma drug concentration measurements. Subjects received single doses of dofetilide, quinidine, ranolazine, and placebo. The outcome was the correlation between a genetic QT score comprising 61 common genetic variants and the slope of an individual subject's drug-induced increase in heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) versus drug concentration.
RESULTS - The genetic QT score was correlated with drug-induced QTc prolongation. Among white subjects, genetic QT score explained 30% of the variability in response to dofetilide (=0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.81; =0.02), 23% in response to quinidine (=0.48; 95% confidence interval, -0.03 to 0.79; =0.06), and 27% in response to ranolazine (=0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.80; =0.03). Furthermore, the genetic QT score was a significant predictor of drug-induced torsade de pointes in an independent sample of 216 cases compared with 771 controls (=12%, =1×10).
CONCLUSIONS - We demonstrate that a genetic QT score comprising 61 common genetic variants explains a significant proportion of the variability in drug-induced QT prolongation and is a significant predictor of drug-induced torsade de pointes. These findings highlight an opportunity for recent genetic discoveries to improve individualized risk-benefit assessment for pharmacological therapies. Replication of these findings in larger samples is needed to more precisely estimate variance explained and to establish the individual variants that drive these effects.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION - URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01873950.
© 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
OBJECTIVES - Arachidonic acid metabolites (eicosanoids) reflect oxidative stress and vascular health and have been associated with anthropometric measures and sex differences in cross-sectional analyses of HIV-infected (HIV+) persons. Telmisartan is an angiotensin receptor blocker and PPAR-γ agonist with potential anti-inflammatory and metabolic benefits. We assessed telmisartan's effects on urine eicosanoids among HIV+ adults with central adiposity on suppressive antiretroviral therapy enrolled in a prospective clinical trial.
METHODS - Thirty-five HIV+ adults (15 women; 20 men) completed 24 weeks of open-label oral telmisartan 40mg daily. Lumbar computed tomography quantified visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) abdominal adipose tissue. Urine F2-isoprostane (F2-IsoP), prostaglandin E2 (PGE-M), prostacyclin (PGI-M), and thromboxane B2 (TxB-M) were quantified at baseline and 24 weeks using gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Mann-Whitney-U tests compared sub-group differences; Spearman's rho assessed correlations between clinical factors and eicosanoid levels.
RESULTS - Median PGE-M increased on telmisartan (p<0.01), with greater changes in men (+4.1 [p = 0.03] vs. +1.0 ng/mg cr in women; between-group p = 0.25) and participants losing >5% VAT (+3.7 ng/mg cr, p<0.01) and gaining >5% SAT (+1.7 ng/mg cr, p = 0.04). Median baseline F2-IsoP and TxB-M were slightly higher in women (both between-group p = 0.08) and did not change on telmisartan.
CONCLUSIONS - Urine PGE-M increased with 24 weeks of telmisartan in virally suppressed, HIV+ adults with central adiposity. Associations with favorable fat redistribution suggest increased PGE-M may reflect a beneficial response.
The aging population with its concomitant medical conditions, physical and cognitive impairments, at a time of strained resources, establishes the urgent need to explore advanced technologies that may enhance function and quality of life. Recently, robotic technology, especially socially assistive robotics has been investigated to address the physical, cognitive, and social needs of older adults. Most system to date have predominantly focused on one-on-one human robot interaction (HRI). In this paper, we present a multi-user engagement-based robotic coach system architecture (ROCARE). ROCARE is capable of administering both one-on-one and multi-user HRI, providing implicit and explicit channels of communication, and individualized activity management for long-term engagement. Two preliminary feasibility studies, a one-on-one interaction and a triadic interaction with two humans and a robot, were conducted and the results indicated potential usefulness and acceptance by older adults, with and without cognitive impairment.