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The effect of the EP3 antagonist DG-041 on male mice with diet-induced obesity.
Ceddia RP, Downey JD, Morrison RD, Kraemer MP, Davis SE, Wu J, Lindsley CW, Yin H, Daniels JS, Breyer RM
(2019) Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 144: 106353
MeSH Terms: Acrylamides, Animals, Blood Pressure, Body Weight, Diet, High-Fat, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Insulin Resistance, Male, Mice, Muscle, Skeletal, Obesity, Phenotype, Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP3 Subtype, Sulfones, Triglycerides
Show Abstract · Added September 4, 2019
BACKGROUND/AIMS - The prostaglandin E (PGE) EP3 receptor has a multifaceted role in metabolism. Drugs targeting EP3 have been proposed as therapeutics for diabetes; however, studies utilizing global EP3 knockout mice suggest that EP3 blockade increases obesity and insulin resistance. The present studies attempt to determine the effect of acute EP3 antagonist treatment on the diabetic phenotype.
METHODS - DG-041 was confirmed to be a high affinity antagonist at the mouse EP3 receptor by competition radioligand binding and by blockade of EP3-mediated responses. DG-041 pharmacokinetic studies were performed to determine the most efficacious route of administration. Male C57BL/6 × BALB/c (CB6F1) mice were fed diets containing 10%, 45%, or 60% calories from fat to induce obesity. Changes to the metabolic phenotype in these mice were evaluated after one week treatment with DG-041.
RESULTS - Subcutaneous injections of DG-041 at 20 mg/kg blocked the sulprostone-evoked rise in mean arterial pressure confirming the efficacy of this administration regime. Seven day treatment with DG-041 had minimal effect on body composition or glycemic control. DG-041 administration caused a reduction in skeletal muscle triglyceride content while showing a trend toward increased hepatic triglycerides.
CONCLUSION - Short term EP3 administration of DG-041 produced effective blockade of the EP3 receptor and decreased skeletal muscle triglyceride content but had no significant effects on the diabetic phenotype.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
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16 MeSH Terms
β-Cell-intrinsic β-arrestin 1 signaling enhances sulfonylurea-induced insulin secretion.
Barella LF, Rossi M, Zhu L, Cui Y, Mei FC, Cheng X, Chen W, Gurevich VV, Wess J
(2019) J Clin Invest 129: 3732-3737
MeSH Terms: Animals, Genotype, Glyburide, Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors, Hypoglycemic Agents, Insulin Secretion, Insulin-Secreting Cells, Male, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Mice, Transgenic, Phenotype, Signal Transduction, Sulfonylurea Compounds, Tolbutamide, beta-Arrestin 1, beta-Arrestin 2
Show Abstract · Added March 18, 2020
Beta-arrestin-1 and -2 (Barr1 and Barr2, respectively) are intracellular signaling molecules that regulate many important metabolic functions. We previously demonstrated that mice lacking Barr2 selectively in pancreatic beta-cells showed pronounced metabolic impairments. Here we investigated whether Barr1 plays a similar role in regulating beta-cell function and whole body glucose homeostasis. Initially, we inactivated the Barr1 gene in beta-cells of adult mice (beta-barr1-KO mice). Beta-barr1-KO mice did not display any obvious phenotypes in a series of in vivo and in vitro metabolic tests. However, glibenclamide and tolbutamide, two widely used antidiabetic drugs of the sulfonylurea (SU) family, showed greatly reduced efficacy in stimulating insulin secretion in the KO mice in vivo and in perifused KO islets in vitro. Additional in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that Barr1 enhanced SU-stimulated insulin secretion by promoting SU-mediated activation of Epac2. Pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that Barr1 can directly interact with Epac2 and that SUs such as glibenclamide promote Barr1/Epac2 complex formation, triggering enhanced Rap1 signaling and insulin secretion. These findings suggest that strategies aimed at promoting Barr1 signaling in beta-cells may prove useful for the development of efficacious antidiabetic drugs.
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17 MeSH Terms
A catalog of genetic loci associated with kidney function from analyses of a million individuals.
Wuttke M, Li Y, Li M, Sieber KB, Feitosa MF, Gorski M, Tin A, Wang L, Chu AY, Hoppmann A, Kirsten H, Giri A, Chai JF, Sveinbjornsson G, Tayo BO, Nutile T, Fuchsberger C, Marten J, Cocca M, Ghasemi S, Xu Y, Horn K, Noce D, van der Most PJ, Sedaghat S, Yu Z, Akiyama M, Afaq S, Ahluwalia TS, Almgren P, Amin N, Ärnlöv J, Bakker SJL, Bansal N, Baptista D, Bergmann S, Biggs ML, Biino G, Boehnke M, Boerwinkle E, Boissel M, Bottinger EP, Boutin TS, Brenner H, Brumat M, Burkhardt R, Butterworth AS, Campana E, Campbell A, Campbell H, Canouil M, Carroll RJ, Catamo E, Chambers JC, Chee ML, Chee ML, Chen X, Cheng CY, Cheng Y, Christensen K, Cifkova R, Ciullo M, Concas MP, Cook JP, Coresh J, Corre T, Sala CF, Cusi D, Danesh J, Daw EW, de Borst MH, De Grandi A, de Mutsert R, de Vries APJ, Degenhardt F, Delgado G, Demirkan A, Di Angelantonio E, Dittrich K, Divers J, Dorajoo R, Eckardt KU, Ehret G, Elliott P, Endlich K, Evans MK, Felix JF, Foo VHX, Franco OH, Franke A, Freedman BI, Freitag-Wolf S, Friedlander Y, Froguel P, Gansevoort RT, Gao H, Gasparini P, Gaziano JM, Giedraitis V, Gieger C, Girotto G, Giulianini F, Gögele M, Gordon SD, Gudbjartsson DF, Gudnason V, Haller T, Hamet P, Harris TB, Hartman CA, Hayward C, Hellwege JN, Heng CK, Hicks AA, Hofer E, Huang W, Hutri-Kähönen N, Hwang SJ, Ikram MA, Indridason OS, Ingelsson E, Ising M, Jaddoe VWV, Jakobsdottir J, Jonas JB, Joshi PK, Josyula NS, Jung B, Kähönen M, Kamatani Y, Kammerer CM, Kanai M, Kastarinen M, Kerr SM, Khor CC, Kiess W, Kleber ME, Koenig W, Kooner JS, Körner A, Kovacs P, Kraja AT, Krajcoviechova A, Kramer H, Krämer BK, Kronenberg F, Kubo M, Kühnel B, Kuokkanen M, Kuusisto J, La Bianca M, Laakso M, Lange LA, Langefeld CD, Lee JJ, Lehne B, Lehtimäki T, Lieb W, Lifelines Cohort Study, Lim SC, Lind L, Lindgren CM, Liu J, Liu J, Loeffler M, Loos RJF, Lucae S, Lukas MA, Lyytikäinen LP, Mägi R, Magnusson PKE, Mahajan A, Martin NG, Martins J, März W, Mascalzoni D, Matsuda K, Meisinger C, Meitinger T, Melander O, Metspalu A, Mikaelsdottir EK, Milaneschi Y, Miliku K, Mishra PP, V. A. Million Veteran Program, Mohlke KL, Mononen N, Montgomery GW, Mook-Kanamori DO, Mychaleckyj JC, Nadkarni GN, Nalls MA, Nauck M, Nikus K, Ning B, Nolte IM, Noordam R, O'Connell J, O'Donoghue ML, Olafsson I, Oldehinkel AJ, Orho-Melander M, Ouwehand WH, Padmanabhan S, Palmer ND, Palsson R, Penninx BWJH, Perls T, Perola M, Pirastu M, Pirastu N, Pistis G, Podgornaia AI, Polasek O, Ponte B, Porteous DJ, Poulain T, Pramstaller PP, Preuss MH, Prins BP, Province MA, Rabelink TJ, Raffield LM, Raitakari OT, Reilly DF, Rettig R, Rheinberger M, Rice KM, Ridker PM, Rivadeneira F, Rizzi F, Roberts DJ, Robino A, Rossing P, Rudan I, Rueedi R, Ruggiero D, Ryan KA, Saba Y, Sabanayagam C, Salomaa V, Salvi E, Saum KU, Schmidt H, Schmidt R, Schöttker B, Schulz CA, Schupf N, Shaffer CM, Shi Y, Smith AV, Smith BH, Soranzo N, Spracklen CN, Strauch K, Stringham HM, Stumvoll M, Svensson PO, Szymczak S, Tai ES, Tajuddin SM, Tan NYQ, Taylor KD, Teren A, Tham YC, Thiery J, Thio CHL, Thomsen H, Thorleifsson G, Toniolo D, Tönjes A, Tremblay J, Tzoulaki I, Uitterlinden AG, Vaccargiu S, van Dam RM, van der Harst P, van Duijn CM, Velez Edward DR, Verweij N, Vogelezang S, Völker U, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Waldenberger M, Wallentin L, Wang YX, Wang C, Waterworth DM, Bin Wei W, White H, Whitfield JB, Wild SH, Wilson JF, Wojczynski MK, Wong C, Wong TY, Xu L, Yang Q, Yasuda M, Yerges-Armstrong LM, Zhang W, Zonderman AB, Rotter JI, Bochud M, Psaty BM, Vitart V, Wilson JG, Dehghan A, Parsa A, Chasman DI, Ho K, Morris AP, Devuyst O, Akilesh S, Pendergrass SA, Sim X, Böger CA, Okada Y, Edwards TL, Snieder H, Stefansson K, Hung AM, Heid IM, Scholz M, Teumer A, Köttgen A, Pattaro C
(2019) Nat Genet 51: 957-972
MeSH Terms: Chromosome Mapping, European Continental Ancestry Group, Genetic Association Studies, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genome-Wide Association Study, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Humans, Inheritance Patterns, Kidney Function Tests, Phenotype, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Quantitative Trait Loci, Quantitative Trait, Heritable, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic, Uromodulin
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.
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Ceapins block the unfolded protein response sensor ATF6α by inducing a neomorphic inter-organelle tether.
Torres SE, Gallagher CM, Plate L, Gupta M, Liem CR, Guo X, Tian R, Stroud RM, Kampmann M, Weissman JS, Walter P
(2019) Elife 8:
MeSH Terms: ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters, Activating Transcription Factor 6, CRISPR-Cas Systems, Endoplasmic Reticulum, HEK293 Cells, Hep G2 Cells, Humans, Organelles, Peroxisomes, Phenotype, Protein Binding, Small Molecule Libraries, Unfolded Protein Response
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
The unfolded protein response (UPR) detects and restores deficits in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein folding capacity. Ceapins specifically inhibit the UPR sensor ATF6α, an ER-tethered transcription factor, by retaining it at the ER through an unknown mechanism. Our genome-wide CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) screen reveals that Ceapins function is completely dependent on the ABCD3 peroxisomal transporter. Proteomics studies establish that ABCD3 physically associates with ER-resident ATF6α in cells and in vitro in a Ceapin-dependent manner. Ceapins induce the neomorphic association of ER and peroxisomes by directly tethering the cytosolic domain of ATF6α to ABCD3's transmembrane regions without inhibiting or depending on ABCD3 transporter activity. Thus, our studies reveal that Ceapins function by chemical-induced misdirection which explains their remarkable specificity and opens up new mechanistic routes for drug development and synthetic biology.
© 2019, Torres et al.
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Extensive loss of cell-cycle and DNA repair genes in an ancient lineage of bipolar budding yeasts.
Steenwyk JL, Opulente DA, Kominek J, Shen XX, Zhou X, Labella AL, Bradley NP, Eichman BF, Čadež N, Libkind D, DeVirgilio J, Hulfachor AB, Kurtzman CP, Hittinger CT, Rokas A
(2019) PLoS Biol 17: e3000255
MeSH Terms: Base Sequence, Cell Cycle, DNA Damage, DNA Repair, Evolution, Molecular, Genes, Fungal, Phenotype, Phylogeny, Saccharomycetales
Show Abstract · Added August 26, 2019
Cell-cycle checkpoints and DNA repair processes protect organisms from potentially lethal mutational damage. Compared to other budding yeasts in the subphylum Saccharomycotina, we noticed that a lineage in the genus Hanseniaspora exhibited very high evolutionary rates, low Guanine-Cytosine (GC) content, small genome sizes, and lower gene numbers. To better understand Hanseniaspora evolution, we analyzed 25 genomes, including 11 newly sequenced, representing 18/21 known species in the genus. Our phylogenomic analyses identify two Hanseniaspora lineages, a faster-evolving lineage (FEL), which began diversifying approximately 87 million years ago (mya), and a slower-evolving lineage (SEL), which began diversifying approximately 54 mya. Remarkably, both lineages lost genes associated with the cell cycle and genome integrity, but these losses were greater in the FEL. E.g., all species lost the cell-cycle regulator WHIskey 5 (WHI5), and the FEL lost components of the spindle checkpoint pathway (e.g., Mitotic Arrest-Deficient 1 [MAD1], Mitotic Arrest-Deficient 2 [MAD2]) and DNA-damage-checkpoint pathway (e.g., Mitosis Entry Checkpoint 3 [MEC3], RADiation sensitive 9 [RAD9]). Similarly, both lineages lost genes involved in DNA repair pathways, including the DNA glycosylase gene 3-MethylAdenine DNA Glycosylase 1 (MAG1), which is part of the base-excision repair pathway, and the DNA photolyase gene PHotoreactivation Repair deficient 1 (PHR1), which is involved in pyrimidine dimer repair. Strikingly, the FEL lost 33 additional genes, including polymerases (i.e., POLymerase 4 [POL4] and POL32) and telomere-associated genes (e.g., Repressor/activator site binding protein-Interacting Factor 1 [RIF1], Replication Factor A 3 [RFA3], Cell Division Cycle 13 [CDC13], Pbp1p Binding Protein [PBP2]). Echoing these losses, molecular evolutionary analyses reveal that, compared to the SEL, the FEL stem lineage underwent a burst of accelerated evolution, which resulted in greater mutational loads, homopolymer instabilities, and higher fractions of mutations associated with the common endogenously damaged base, 8-oxoguanine. We conclude that Hanseniaspora is an ancient lineage that has diversified and thrived, despite lacking many otherwise highly conserved cell-cycle and genome integrity genes and pathways, and may represent a novel, to our knowledge, system for studying cellular life without them.
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On Using Local Ancestry to Characterize the Genetic Architecture of Human Traits: Genetic Regulation of Gene Expression in Multiethnic or Admixed Populations.
Zhong Y, Perera MA, Gamazon ER
(2019) Am J Hum Genet 104: 1097-1115
MeSH Terms: Ethnic Groups, Gene Expression Regulation, Genetics, Population, Genome-Wide Association Study, Humans, Linkage Disequilibrium, Models, Genetic, Multifactorial Inheritance, Phenotype, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Quantitative Trait Loci
Show Abstract · Added July 17, 2019
Understanding the nature of the genetic regulation of gene expression promises to advance our understanding of the genetic basis of disease. However, the methodological impact of the use of local ancestry on high-dimensional omics analyses, including, most prominently, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping and trait heritability estimation, in admixed populations remains critically underexplored. Here, we develop a statistical framework that characterizes the relationships among the determinants of the genetic architecture of an important class of molecular traits. We provide a computationally efficient approach to local ancestry analysis in eQTL mapping while increasing control of type I and type II error over traditional approaches. Applying our method to National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) datasets, we show that the use of local ancestry can improve eQTL mapping in admixed and multiethnic populations, respectively. We estimate the trait variance explained by ancestry by using local admixture relatedness between individuals. By using simulations of diverse genetic architectures and degrees of confounding, we show improved accuracy in estimating heritability when accounting for local ancestry similarity. Furthermore, we characterize the sparse versus polygenic components of gene expression in admixed individuals. Our study has important methodological implications for genetic analysis of omics traits across a range of genomic contexts, from a single variant to a prioritized region to the entire genome. Our findings highlight the importance of using local ancestry to better characterize the heritability of complex traits and to more accurately map genetic associations.
Copyright © 2019 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Picturing Polarized Myeloid Phagocytes and Regulatory Cells by Mass Cytometry.
Roussel M, Bartkowiak T, Irish JM
(2019) Methods Mol Biol 1989: 217-226
MeSH Terms: Cytokines, Dendritic Cells, Flow Cytometry, Humans, Mass Spectrometry, Monocytes, Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells, Phagocytes, Phenotype, Single-Cell Analysis
Show Abstract · Added May 13, 2019
The immune monocyte/phagocyte system (MPS) includes numerous cell subsets of the myeloid lineage including monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell (DC) populations that are heterogeneous both phenotypically and functionally. Previously, we characterized these diverse MPS phenotypes with multi-parametric mass cytometry (CyTOF). In order to expansively characterize monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, a CyTOF panel was designed to measure 35 identity-, activation-, and polarization-markers. Here we provide a protocol to define a reference map for the myeloid compartment, including sample preparation, to produce reference cell subsets from the monocyte/phagocyte system. In particular, we focused on monocyte-derived macrophages that were further polarized in vitro with cytokine stimulation (i.e., M-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-10, IFNγ, and LPS), as well as monocyte-derived DCs, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), generated in vitro from human bone marrow and/or peripheral blood.
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Self-reported Sensory Hypersensitivity Moderates Association Between Tactile Psychophysical Performance and Autism-Related Traits in Neurotypical Adults.
Bryant LK, Woynaroski TG, Wallace MT, Cascio CJ
(2019) J Autism Dev Disord 49: 3159-3172
MeSH Terms: Adult, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Female, Humans, Male, Phenotype, Self Report, Touch
Show Abstract · Added March 18, 2020
Atypical responses to tactile stimulation have been linked to core domains of dysfunction in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and phenotypic traits associated with ASD in neurotypical individuals. We investigated (a) the extent to which two psychophysically derived measures of tactile sensitivity-detection threshold and dynamic range-relate to traits associated with ASD and (b) whether those relations vary according to the presence of self-reported sensory hypersensitivities in neurotypical individuals. A narrow dynamic range was associated with increased autism-related traits in individuals who reported greater sensory hypersensitivity. In contrast, in individuals less prone to sensory hypersensitivity, a narrow dynamic range was associated with reduced autism-related traits. Findings highlight the potential importance of considering dynamic psychophysical metrics in future studies.
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Shared Genetic Risk Factors Across Carbamazepine-Induced Hypersensitivity Reactions.
Nicoletti P, Barrett S, McEvoy L, Daly AK, Aithal G, Lucena MI, Andrade RJ, Wadelius M, Hallberg P, Stephens C, Bjornsson ES, Friedmann P, Kainu K, Laitinen T, Marson A, Molokhia M, Phillips E, Pichler W, Romano A, Shear N, Sills G, Tanno LK, Swale A, Floratos A, Shen Y, Nelson MR, Watkins PB, Daly MJ, Morris AP, Alfirevic A, Pirmohamed M
(2019) Clin Pharmacol Ther 106: 1028-1036
MeSH Terms: Adult, Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase, Carbamazepine, Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Drug Hypersensitivity, Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome, Europe, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genome-Wide Association Study, HLA-A Antigens, HLA-B Antigens, Humans, Male, Phenotype, Risk Factors, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
Show Abstract · Added March 30, 2020
Carbamazepine (CBZ) causes life-threating T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity reactions, including serious cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) and drug-induced liver injury (CBZ-DILI). In order to evaluate shared or phenotype-specific genetic predisposing factors for CBZ hypersensitivity reactions, we performed a meta-analysis of two genomewide association studies (GWAS) on a total of 43 well-phenotyped Northern and Southern European CBZ-SCAR cases and 10,701 population controls and a GWAS on 12 CBZ-DILI cases and 8,438 ethnically matched population controls. HLA-A*31:01 was identified as the strongest genetic predisposing factor for both CBZ-SCAR (odds ratio (OR) = 8.0; 95% CI 4.10-15.80; P = 1.2 × 10 ) and CBZ-DILI (OR = 7.3; 95% CI 2.47-23.67; P = 0.0004) in European populations. The association with HLA-A*31:01 in patients with SCAR was mainly driven by hypersensitivity syndrome (OR = 12.9; P = 2.1 × 10 ) rather than by Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis cases, which showed an association with HLA-B*57:01. We also identified a novel risk locus mapping to ALK only for CBZ-SCAR cases, which needs replication in additional cohorts and functional evaluation.
© 2019 The Authors Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
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Patient-independent human induced pluripotent stem cell model: A new tool for rapid determination of genetic variant pathogenicity in long QT syndrome.
Chavali NV, Kryshtal DO, Parikh SS, Wang L, Glazer AM, Blackwell DJ, Kroncke BM, Shoemaker MB, Knollmann BC
(2019) Heart Rhythm 16: 1686-1695
MeSH Terms: Action Potentials, Calcium Channels, L-Type, Child, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, Female, Gene Editing, Genetic Testing, Genetic Variation, Humans, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Long QT Syndrome, Pedigree, Phenotype
Show Abstract · Added March 4, 2020
BACKGROUND - Commercial genetic testing for long QT syndrome (LQTS) has rapidly expanded, but the inability to accurately predict whether a rare variant is pathogenic has limited its clinical benefit. Novel missense variants are routinely reported as variant of unknown significance (VUS) and cannot be used to screen family members at risk for sudden cardiac death. Better approaches to determine the pathogenicity of VUS are needed.
OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this study was to rapidly determine the pathogenicity of a CACNA1C variant reported by commercial genetic testing as a VUS using a patient-independent human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) model.
METHODS - Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, CACNA1C-p.N639T was introduced into a previously established hiPSC from an unrelated healthy volunteer, thereby generating a patient-independent hiPSC model. Three independent heterozygous N639T hiPSC lines were generated and differentiated into cardiomyocytes (CM). Electrophysiological properties of N639T hiPSC-CM were compared to those of isogenic and population control hiPSC-CM by measuring the extracellular field potential (EFP) of 96-well hiPSC-CM monolayers and by patch clamp.
RESULTS - Significant EFP prolongation was observed only in optically stimulated but not in spontaneously beating N639T hiPSC-CM. Patch-clamp studies revealed that N639T prolonged the ventricular action potential by slowing voltage-dependent inactivation of Ca1.2 currents. Heterologous expression studies confirmed the effect of N639T on Ca1.2 inactivation.
CONCLUSION - The patient-independent hiPSC model enabled rapid generation of functional data to support reclassification of a CACNA1C VUS to likely pathogenic, thereby establishing a novel LQTS type 8 mutation. Furthermore, our results indicate the importance of controlling beating rates to evaluate the functional significance of LQTS VUS in high-throughput hiPSC-CM assays.
Copyright © 2019 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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13 MeSH Terms