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This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions to get screened for prostate cancer in low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities. It also examined obstacles to getting screened. As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization, and screening practices for various cancers in low-income African Americans. For this study, only African American men 45 years and older (n=293) were selected from the Meharry CNP community survey database. Participants from Nashville, those who were older, obese, and who had health insurance were more likely to have been screened (p<.05). Additionally, there were associations between obstacles to screening (such as cost and transportation) and geographic region (p<.05). Educational interventions aimed at improving prostate cancer knowledge and screening rates should incorporate information about obstacles to and predictors of screening.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers great potential for increasing the impact of research on reducing cancer health disparities. This article reports how the Community Outreach Core (COC) of the Meharry-Vanderbilt-Tennessee State University (TSU) Cancer Partnership has collaborated with community partners to develop and implement CBPR. The COC, Progreso Community Center, and Nashville Latino Health Coalition jointly developed and conducted the 2007 Hispanic Health in Nashville Survey as a participatory needs assessment to guide planning for subsequent CBPR projects and community health initiatives. Trained community and student interviewers surveyed 500 Hispanic adults in the Nashville area, using a convenience sampling method. In light of the survey results, NLHC decided to focus in the area of cancer on the primary prevention of cervical cancer. The survey led to a subsequent formative CBPR research project to develop an intervention, then to funding of a CBPR pilot intervention study to test the intervention.
One of the biggest challenges facing racial health disparities research is identifying how and where to implement effective, sustainable interventions. Community-based organizations (CBOs) and community-academic partnerships are frequently utilized as vehicles to conduct community health promotion interventions without attending to the viability and sustainability of CBOs or capacity inequities among partners. Utilizing organizational empowerment theory, this paper describes an intervention designed to increase the capacity of CBOs and community-academic partnerships to implement strategies to improve community health. The Capacity Building project illustrates how capacity building interventions can help to identify community health needs, promote community empowerment, and reduce health disparities.
Natural catastrophes disproportionately affect ill and socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Patients with end-stage renal disease are particularly vulnerable. Recent events have led to the creation of national and international institutions that provide assistance before and during such tragedies. Disaster planning by dialysis centers, providers, and patients can also help improve outcomes during a catastrophe. Greater governmental resource allocation is needed to adequately prepare for disasters and to help the disadvantaged during the relief and recovery phases.
Noise has been shown to interfere with the healing process and can disrupt the patient's experience. This study assessed patients' and staff's perceptions of noise levels and sources in the hospital environment and identified interventions to reduce the noise level. The interventions significantly reduced noise as perceived by patients and staff. Identification of a structured process to identify noise sources and standardization of noise measurement methods can improve the patient hospital experience.
PURPOSE - To describe (a) the extent of inter- and intrainstitutional variation in labor, capital, and process-of-care variables related to nursing service on U.S. adult acute and intensive care units; (b) the extent to which resource clustering exists; and (c) an analysis of resource cluster role that explains variation in physical restraint rates.
DESIGN - Descriptive.
METHODS - Staff at 82 adult acute care and 55 intensive care units from 40 randomly selected U.S. hospitals provided data about more than 100 capital, labor, and process variables via (a) a staff nurse survey, and (b) interviews with unit leaders and measurement of unit design. These data described resources during the period in which physical restraint rate was established via direct observation.
FINDINGS - Depending on the resource variable, 7% to 57% of hospitals in which more than one ICU was studied showed resource variation between their ICUs; the comparable statistics for adult acute units were 5% to 45%. Cluster analysis indicated a two-cluster solution for ICUs and a three-cluster solution for non-ICUs. ICU cluster assignment varied within 16% of hospitals in which more than one ICU was studied. Non-ICU cluster assignment varied within 20% of hospitals. Physical restraint use was best explained by patient characteristics, not resource clusters or individual resources.
CONCLUSIONS - Studies of outcomes that are the product of a single unit must include measurement of resources at the unit level, assuming equal resources among units of similar types within a hospital is unwarranted. Further research regarding the effect of resource clusters on nurse sensitive outcomes is suggested.
BACKGROUND - A Community health assessment (CHA) involves the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in conjunction with other software to analyze health and population data and perform numerical-spatial problem solving. There has been little research on identifying how public health professionals integrate this software during typical problem solving scenarios. A better understanding of this is needed to answer the "What" and the "How". The "What" identifies the specific software being used and the "How" explains the way they are integrated together during problem solving steps. This level of understanding will highlight the role of GIS utilization during problem solving and suggest to developers how GIS can be enhanced to better support data analysis during community health assessment.
RESULTS - An online survey was developed to identify the information technology used during CHA analysis. The tasks were broken down into steps and for our analysis these steps were categorized by action: Data Management/Access, Data Navigation, Geographic Comparison, Detection of Spatial Boundaries, Spatial Modelling, and Ranking Analysis. 27 CHA professionals completed the survey, with the majority of participants (14) being from health departments. Statistical software (e.g. SPSS) was the most popular software for all but one of the types of steps. For this step (detection of spatial boundaries), GIS was identified as the most popular technology.
CONCLUSION - Most CHA professionals indicated they use statistical software in conjunction with GIS. The statistical software appears to drive the analysis, while GIS is used primarily for simple spatial display (and not complex spatial analysis). This purpose of this survey was to thoroughly examine into the process of problem solving during community health assessment data analysis and to gauge how GIS is integrated with other software for this purpose. These findings suggest that GIS is used more for spatial display while other software such as statistical packages (the "What") are used to drive data management, data navigation, and data calculation (the "How"). Focusing at the level of how public health problems are solved, can shed light on how GIS technology can be enhanced to encompass a stronger role during community health assessment problem solving.
OBJECTIVE - To test the a priori hypothesis that obesity is a predictor of risk for reporting homebound status.
RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES - A longitudinal cohort study was conducted with 21,645 community-dwelling men and women 65 to 97 years old. A nutrition risk screen was administered baseline between 1994 and 1999 and again 3 to 4 years later. Univariate analyses identified baseline variables associated with subsequent reporting of homebound status. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to identify baseline variables that were significant independent predictors of reporting homebound status.
RESULTS - At baseline, 24% of the cohort had BMI > or = 30. There were 12,834 (45% men) respondents at follow-up (68% response). Non-responders at follow-up differed little from responders except for greater baseline age (72.2 +/- 6.2 vs. 71.4 +/- 5.6 years, p < 0.001) and reporting of any functional limitations (9.2% vs. 4.9%, p < 0.001). At follow-up, those who reported homebound status (n = 169) were significantly (p < 0.001) older (80.3 +/- 7.3 vs. 75.1 +/- 5.5 years) and more likely to report functional limitations (83.4% vs. 10.8%). Univariate analyses identified 16 baseline variables that were eliminated stepwise until five significant independent predictors remained: age > or = 75 years (2.21, 1.55 to 3.15/odds ratio, 95% confidence interval), BMI > or = 35 (1.75, 1.04 to 2.96), poor appetite (2.50, 1.29 to 4.86), low income (1.59, 1.00 to 2.56), and any functional limitation (10.67, 7.36 to 15.46).
DISCUSSION - Obesity remained a significant independent predictor for reporting homebound status and should be considered in screening of older populations and in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of services for homebound older persons.
This study discusses the development of scales to measure key leaders' self-reported involvement in community capacity building, perceptions of organizational capacity for teen pregnancy prevention, and the relationship between capacity and teen pregnancy rates. Data were collected from 1,516 key leaders across a rural southern state. Findings indicate that key leaders' perceptions of organizational capacity are related to their involvement in community capacity building efforts and community capacity is associated with teen pregnancy rates. This research represents progress toward measuring community and organizational capacity and may be used to inform future work focusing on developing quantitative measures of community capacity.
Quality of life (QOL) has become an integral part of the modern assessment of cancer treatment in Western society. However, little is known about the QOL of Chinese breast cancer survivors. To evaluate the long-term impact of medical and socio-demographic factors on survivors' QOL, we conducted a population-based study of 1065 breast cancer survivors in Shanghai, China. The mean age at diagnosis was 48.1 years and the median survival time was 4.3 years for the study participants. The Generic Quality of Life Inventory was used to assess survivors' QOL. Multiple linear regression models were employed to analyze the associations of QOL outcomes with socio-demographic and medical factors. The results revealed that recurrence status, time since diagnosis, marital status, income and education all had an independent, significant association with overall QOL and differential domains of QOL. Age at diagnosis exhibited a dual effect on QOL, positively associated with material well-being and negatively associated with physical well-being. Stage of disease was only associated with social well-being, while the type of surgery was related to material well-being alone. No associations between QOL and chemotherapy or radiotherapy were found. Further, analyses by survival intervals suggested a domain-specific order of recovery of QOL after cancer treatment. These results fill gaps in the limited literature, and provide valuable information for physicians to target the specific needs of Chinese women with breast cancer, choose appropriate interventions at the optimal time, and develop strategies accordingly in terms of improvement of patient's QOL.