The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Hepatic portal venous infusion of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors causes muscle insulin resistance, but the effects on hepatic glucose disposition are unknown. Conscious dogs underwent a hyperinsulinemic (4-fold basal) hyperglycemic (hepatic glucose load 2-fold basal) clamp, with assessment of liver metabolism by arteriovenous difference methods. After 90 min (P1), dogs were divided into two groups: control (receiving intraportal saline infusion; n = 8) and LN [receiving N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nonspecific NOS inhibitor; n = 11] intraportally at 0.3 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) for 90 min (P2). During the final 60 min of study (P3), L-NAME was discontinued, and five LN dogs received the NO donor SIN-1 intraportally at 6 mug x kg(-1) x min(-1) while six received saline (LN/SIN-1 and LN/SAL, respectively). Net hepatic fractional glucose extraction (NHFE) in control dogs was 0.034 +/- 0.016, 0.039 +/- 0.015, and 0.056 +/- 0.019 during P1, P2, and P3, respectively. NHFE in LN was 0.045 +/- 0.009 and 0.111 +/- 0.007 during P1 and P2, respectively (P < 0.05 vs. control during P2), and 0.087 +/- 0.009 and 0.122 +/- 0.016 (P < 0.05) during P3 in LN/SIN-1 and LN/SAL, respectively. During P2, arterial glucose was 204 +/- 5 vs. 138 +/- 11 mg/dl (P < 0.05) in LN vs. control to compensate for L-NAME's effect on blood flow. Therefore, another group (LNlow; n = 4) was studied in the same manner as LN/SAL, except that arterial glucose was clamped at the same concentrations as in control. NHFE in LNlow was 0.052 +/- 0.008, 0.093 +/- 0.023, and 0.122 +/- 0.021 during P1, P2, and P3, respectively (P < 0.05 vs. control during P2 and P3), with no significant difference in glucose infusion rates. Thus, NOS inhibition enhanced NHFE, an effect partially reversed by SIN-1.
OBJECTIVE - Human endothelial cells use the multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP1) to export glutathione disulfide (GSSG). This can promotes thiol loss during states of increased glutathione oxidation. We investigated how MRP1 modulates blood pressure and vascular function during angiotensin II-induced hypertension.
METHODS AND RESULTS - Angiotensin II-induced hypertension altered vascular glutathione flux by increasing GSSG export and decreasing vascular levels of glutathione in wild-type (FVB) but not in MRP1-/- mice. Aortic endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was reduced in FVB after angiotensin II infusion, but unchanged in MRP1-/- mice. Aortic superoxide (O2*-) production and expression of several NADPH oxidase subunits were increased by angiotensin II in FVB. These effects were markedly blunted in MRP1-/- vessels. The increase in O2*- production in FVB vessels caused by angiotensin II was largely inhibited by L-NAME, suggesting eNOS uncoupling. Accordingly, aortic tetrahydrobiopterin and levels of NO were decreased by angiotensin II in FVB but were unchanged in MRP1-/-. Finally, the hypertension caused by angiotensin II was markedly blunted in MRP1-/- mice (137+/-4 versus 158+/-6 mm Hg).
CONCLUSION - MRP1 plays a crucial role in the genesis of multiple vascular abnormalities that accompany hypertension and its presence is essential for the hypertensive response to angiotensin II.
To test the hypothesis that NO contributes to effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on fibrinolysis, fibrinolytic balance was assessed in 17 normal subjects during placebo and after randomized, double-blind 4-week treatment with the NO precursor L-arginine (3 g TID), ramipril (10 mg QD), or L-arginine+ramipril. Neither L-arginine nor ramipril alone affected basal plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 or tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen in these salt-replete subjects in whom plasma renin activity was suppressed (mean+/-SD 0.7+/-0.5 ng angiotensin I/mL per hour). In contrast, L-arginine+ramipril reduced morning plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen (10.8+/-9.5 ng/mL) and the molar ratio of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1:t-PA (2.3+/-1.6) compared with placebo (13.5+/-10.8 ng/mL, P=0.006; ratio 2.9+/-2.1, P=0.015) or ramipril alone (15.2+/-13.2 ng/mL, P=0.009; ratio 3.7+/-3.3, P=0.005). L-arginine and ramipril synergistically increased d-dimers (23.1+/-31.5, 29.7+/-50.0, 35.1+/-50.0, and 57.1+/-144.8 ng/mL during placebo, L-arginine, ramipril, and L-arginine+ramipril, respectively; P<0.05 for L-arginine+ramipril versus any other group). During ramipril, the NO synthase inhibitor L-NG-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester (2 mg/kg) significantly increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-antigen after 2 hours (from 9.4+/-8.6 ng/mL during vehicle to 13.5+/-11.0 ng/mL during L-NG-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester; P=0.020), consistent with an effect on expression but rapidly increased t-PA activity (from 0.4+/-0.3 to 0.5+/-0.4 IU/mL; P=0.031), consistent with an effect on release. Both effects of L-NG-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester were reversed by L-arginine. During angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, endogenous NO decreases plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen and improves fibrinolytic balance in normotensive salt-replete subjects.
Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a common complication of high-dose chemotherapy associated with bone marrow transplantation. While the pathogenesis of VOD is uncertain, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has emerged as a diagnostic marker and predictor of VOD in humans. In this study, we investigated the role of PAI-1 in a murine model of VOD produced by long-term nitric oxide synthase inhibition using L-NAME. After 6 weeks, wild-type (WT) mice developed extensive fibrinoid hepatic venous thrombi and biochemical evidence of hepatic injury and dysfunction. In contrast, PAI-1-deficient mice were largely protected from the development of hepatic vein thrombosis. Furthermore, WT mice that received tiplaxtinin, an antagonist of PAI-1, were effectively protected from L-NAME-induced thrombosis. Taken together, these data indicate that NO and PAI-1 play pivotal and antagonistic roles in hepatic vein thrombosis and that PAI-1 is a potential target in the prevention and treatment of VOD in humans.
Beta-adrenergic agonists stimulate cardiac contractility and simultaneously blunt this response by coactivating NO synthase (NOS3) to enhance cGMP synthesis and activate protein kinase G (PKG-1). cGMP is also catabolically regulated by phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A). PDE5A inhibition by sildenafil (Viagra) increases cGMP and is used widely to treat erectile dysfunction; however, its role in the heart and its interaction with beta-adrenergic and NOS3/cGMP stimulation is largely unknown. In nontransgenic (control) murine in vivo hearts and isolated myocytes, PDE5A inhibition (sildenafil) minimally altered rest function. However, when the hearts or isolated myocytes were stimulated with isoproterenol, PDE5A inhibition was associated with a suppression of contractility that was coupled to elevated cGMP and increased PKG-1 activity. In contrast, NOS3-null hearts or controls with NOS inhibited by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, or soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibited by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one, showed no effect of PDE5A inhibition on beta-stimulated contractility or PKG-1 activation. This lack of response was not attributable to altered PDE5A gene or protein expression or in vitro PDE5A activity, but rather to an absence of sGC-generated cGMP specifically targeted to PDE5A catabolism and to a loss of PDE5A localization to z-bands. Re-expression of active NOS3 in NOS3-null hearts by adenoviral gene transfer restored PDE5A z-band localization and the antiadrenergic efficacy of PDE5A inhibition. These data support a novel regulatory role of PDE5A in hearts under adrenergic stimulation and highlight specific coupling of PDE5A catabolic regulation with NOS3-derived cGMP attributable to protein subcellular localization and targeted synthetic/catabolic coupling.
To test the hypothesis that NO influences aldosterone production in humans, we examined the effect of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on aldosterone concentrations in the presence and absence of the NO precursor L-arginine (3 g TID) and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril (10 mg QD). Ten normal subjects were given L-NAME (66 microg/kg per min for 30 minutes) or vehicle in random order on separate days during placebo and after randomized, double-blind treatment with L-arginine, ramipril, or L-arginine plus ramipril. Infusion of L-NAME significantly increased systolic blood pressure (all P<0.05) and decreased heart rate (all P< or =0.02) during all 4 treatment arms. After placebo pretreatment, serum aldosterone was significantly higher during L-NAME infusion than during vehicle (6.6+/-1.7 versus 3.3+/-0.5 ng/dL; P=0.045). Combined treatment with L-arginine plus ramipril abolished this effect. There was no effect of L-NAME on plasma renin activity (PRA; P=0.297) or angiotensin II concentrations (P=0.537). However, there was a significant interactive effect of L-NAME and time on serum potassium (P=0.039). There was a significant linear relationship between PRA and aldosterone concentration after vehicle infusion ([aldosterone]=3.9.PRA+1.9; r2=0.476; P=0.027) and L-NAME infusion ([aldosterone]=7.2.PRA+3.1; r2=0.457; P=0.032), and the intercepts of these lines were different (P=0.029). There was a significant linear relationship between serum potassium and aldosterone during L-NAME ([aldosterone]=8.2 . [potassium]-28.9; r2=0.609; P=0.008) but not during vehicle (P=0.313). These data suggest that endogenous NO modulates aldosterone synthesis in humans.
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) independently increases glucose and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) utilization in isolated cardiac muscle preparations. Recent studies indicate this may be due to AMPK-induced phosphorylation and activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Given this, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of AMPK stimulation by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR; 10 mg.kg(-1).min(-1)) on glucose and LCFA utilization in cardiac muscle and to determine the NOS dependence of any observed effects. Catheters were chronically implanted in a carotid artery and jugular vein of Sprague-Dawley rats. After 4 days of recovery, conscious, unrestrained rats were given either water or water containing 1 mg/ml nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) for 2.5 days. After an overnight fast, rats underwent one of four protocols: saline, AICAR, AICAR + L-NAME, or AICAR + Intralipid (20%, 0.02 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)). Glucose was clamped at approximately 6.5 mM in all groups, and an intravenous bolus of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose and [(125)I]-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid was administered to obtain indexes of glucose and LCFA uptake and clearance. Despite AMPK activation, as evidenced by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Ser(221)) and AMPK phosphorylation (Thr(172)), AICAR increased cardiac LCFA but not glucose clearance. L-NAME + AICAR established that this effect was not due to NOS activation, and AICAR + Intralipid showed that increased cardiac LCFA clearance was not LCFA-concentration dependent. These results demonstrate that, in vivo, AMPK stimulation increases LCFA but not glucose clearance by a NOS-independent mechanism.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of AMP kinase (AMPK) activation on in vivo glucose and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake in skeletal muscle and to examine the nitric oxide (NO) dependence of any putative effects. Catheters were chronically implanted in the carotid artery and jugular vein of male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 4 days of recovery, rats were given either water or water containing 1 mg/ml nitro-l-arginine methylester (l-NAME) for 2.5 days. After an overnight fast, rats underwent one of five protocols: saline, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-B-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) (10 mg. kg(-1). min(-1)), l-NAME, AICAR + l-NAME, or AICAR + Intralipid (20%, 0.02 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)). Glucose was clamped at approximately 6.5 mmol/l in all groups, and an intravenous bolus of 2-deoxy[(3)H]glucose and [(125)I]-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid was administered to obtain indexes of glucose (K(g)) and LCFA (K(f)) uptake and clearance. At 150 min, soleus, gastrocnemius, and superficial vastus lateralis were excised for tracer determination. Both K(g) and K(f) increased with AICAR in all muscles studied. K(g) decreased with increasing muscle composition of type 1 slow-twitch fibers, whereas K(f) increased. In addition, AICAR-induced increases in K(g) but not K(f) were abolished by l-NAME in the majority of muscles examined. This shows that the mechanisms by which AMPK stimulates glucose and LCFA uptake are distinct.
Patency of the fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) is maintained in an environment of low relative oxygen tension and a preponderance of vasodilating forces. In addition to prostaglandins, nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator in the pulmonary and systemic vasculatures, has been implicated in regulation of the fetal DA. To further define the contribution of NO to DA patency, the expression and function of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms were examined in the mouse DA on days 17-19 of pregnancy and after birth. Our results show that endothelial NOS (eNOS) is the predominant isoform expressed in the mouse DA and is localized in the DA endothelium by in situ hybridization. Despite rapid constriction of the DA after birth, eNOS expression levels were unchanged throughout the fetal and postnatal period. Pharmacological inhibition of prostaglandin vs. NO synthesis in vivo showed that the preterm fetal DA on day 16 is more sensitive to NOS inhibition than the mature fetal DA on day 19, whereas prostaglandin inhibition results in marked DA constriction on day 19 but minimal effects on the day 16 DA. Combined prostaglandin and NO inhibition caused additional DA constriction on day 16. The contribution of vasa vasorum to DA regulation was also examined. Immunoreactive platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule and lacZ tagged FLK1 localized to DA endothelial cells but revealed the absence of vasa vasorum within the DA wall. Similarly, there was no evidence of vasa vasorum by vascular casting. These studies indicate that eNOS is the primary source of NO in the mouse DA and that vasomotor tone of the preterm fetal mouse DA is regulated by eNOS-derived NO and is potentiated by prostaglandins. In contrast to other species, mechanisms for DA patency and closure appear to be independent of any contribution of the vasa vasorum.
Isotopic techniques were used to test the hypothesis that exercise and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition have distinct effects on tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptakes in a conscious, chronically catheterized mouse model. Uptakes were measured using the radioactive tracers (125)I-labeled beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and deoxy-[2-(3)H]glucose (DG) during treadmill exercise with and without inhibition of NOS. [(125)I]BMIPP uptake at rest differed substantially among tissues with the highest levels in heart. With exercise, [(125)I]BMIPP uptake increased in both heart and skeletal muscles. In sedentary mice, NOS inhibition induced by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) feeding increased heart and soleus [(125)I]BMIPP uptake. In contrast, exercise, but not L-NAME feeding, resulted in increased heart and skeletal muscle [2-(3)H]DG uptake. Significant interactions were not observed in the effects of combined exercise and L-NAME feeding on [(125)I]BMIPP and [2-(3)H]DG uptakes. In the conscious mouse, exercise and NOS inhibition produce distinct patterns of tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptake; NOS is not required for important components of exercise-associated metabolic signaling, or other mechanisms compensate for the absence of this regulatory mechanism.